No Image
No Image


No Image

(English for economists)

(English for economists)


: ..

- , , -, .

- . .


Unit 1


1. to be, to have.

2. Present simple.

3. .

4. there is, there are.

5. much, many, few, little.

Text. Economics

Unit 2


1. .


3. .

Text. The market economy

Unit 3


1. Past simple.

2. it is (was)... That (who)


Text. Marketing

Unit 4


1. Future simple.


3. Text. Product, price, promotion and place: the four ps of marketing

The economy of london

Unit 5


1. Participle ii.

2. Passive voice.

3. .

Text. Industrial management

Unit 6


1. Perfect tenses.

2. .

3. .

Text. Distributing the product

Text. Territorial and administrative division of government in the united kingdom

Unit 7


1. Participle i (present participle active).

2. Continuous tenses.

3. it.

4. .

Text. Production management the "five m's"

Unit 8


1. . .

2. Future-in-the-past.

3. .

4. This-these, that-those .

Text a. How competition benefits us all.

Text b. Competition in many markets: an example.

Unit 9


1. Passive voice.

2. .

3. .

Text. Management and control of companies

Unit 10


1. .

2. .

Text. The sources of business funds

Unit 11


1. (the objective infinitive construction).

2. (the subjective infinitive construction).

Text. Partnership

Unit 12


1. .

2. .

Text. The federal reserve system

Other bank services

Unit 13


1. Participle i

2. .

3. .

Text. Small business in the usa: an s-corporation is not always best.

Unit 14


1. (conditional sentences).

2. .

Text. Taxes, taxes, taxes

Appendix 1. States of the united states of america

Appendix 2. Counties of the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland

Appendix 3. Administrative and territorial divisions of the russian federation

Appendix 4. Supplementary reading

Unit 1

Grammar: 1. to be, to have.

2. Present Simple.

3. .

4. there is, there are.

5. much, many, few, little.


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

ö Hello, John! ø Hello! `Howö are you? Thank ø you, Im all ö right; ö Thank ø you, very ö well; ö Thank you, `not so ö well. `How are you ö doing? `How is ö business? `Not ö bad. `Hows ö life? öFine, `thanks. `How do you ø do? `Good ö morning! öMorning!`Good afterönoon! Good ö evening! ö Evening! Glad to ö meet you! `Havent `seen you for ö ages! Its `good to `see you aögain! How `nice to see you aögain!

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 to be concerned with - -

2.                 exchange -

3.                 consumption -

4.                 goods and services -

5.                 business enterprises -

6.                 objective -

7.                 psychology [sai`k]lci] -

8.                 sociology - [ /sousi`]lci] -

9.                 behavior - [ bi`heivjc] -

10.             microeconomics - [/maikroui:kc`n]miks] -

11.             interplay -

12.             supply and demand -

13.             a competitive market -

14.             wage rates -

15.             profit margins -

16.             rental changes -

17.             consumer -

18.             income -

19.             entrepreneur - . [antrcprc`nc:(r)] -

20.             to deal with - -

21.             employment -

22.             to increase -

23.             interest -

24.             John Maynard Keynes -

Text. Economics

Economics, social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed; history records changes in human objectives; sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts.

Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally. Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.

The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments. Because, according to Keynes, inadequate aggregate demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

social science; distribution of goods and services; to try to explain; sociology interprets human behavior; to create a multitude of individual prices; to spend their income; as much pleasure as possible; they maximize utility; for their part; to deal with modern explanation; prosperity and depression; demand for goods and services; business investors; according to Keynes; larger budget deficits.

4. Answer the following questions:

1.                 What is economics?

2.                 On what problems do economists focus their attention?

3.                 What do psychology and ethics try to explain?

4.                 What does sociology interpret in social contexts?

5.                 Into what fields can be standard economics divided?

6.                 What does microeconomics explain?

7.                 How do consumers try to spend their income?

8.                 Do they maximize utility?

9.                 What questions does the second field study?

10.             Who is the author of the book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money?

11.             How does he explain prosperity and depression?

III. Grammar Exercises

5. Write these phrases in the possessive form, i.e. with s or

1.                the corporations of the nation.

2.                the activities of the people.

3.                the desires of consumers.

4.                the image of a product.

5.                the reputation of a seller.

6.                the work of a day.

7.                the economy of a country.

8.                the problems of the economists.

9.                the play of the government.

10.           the works of Keynes.

11.           the dollar of a consumer.

6. Give the comparative and superlative of the following:

Example: high -higher - the highest;

professional - more professional - the most professional.

efficient, rational, modern, total, large, rich, poor, little, good, traditional, important.

7. Translate the following into Russian:

1. There are, however, no pure market economies in the world today.

2. Economists note that there is no limit to the amount or kinds of things that people want.

3. There is, however, a limit to the resources.

4. In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy.

5. There are many buyers and sellers so that no individual or group can control prices.

6. There are two ways to earn income: from your work and from the use of your wealth.

8. Chose the right word to the words given in the first column:





a lot of











9. Translate into Russian:

1.                 Economists have two ways of looking at economics and economy.

2.                 Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole, microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm.

3.                 Each factor of production has a place in our economic system, and each has a particular function.

4.                 Price stability refers to times during which prices remain constant.

5.                 A budget is a financial plan that summarizes income and expenditures over a period of time.

6.                 Saving is one of the most important things that people do with their incomes.

7.                 Economic forces also affect decisions in the world of business.

8.                 The United States government also employs economists to study economic problems and to suggest ways to solve them.

9.                 Consumers are people who use goods and services to satisfy their wants.

10.             Efficiency is a measure of how much we get for what we use.

11.             Demand is a consumers willingness and ability to buy a product or service at a particular time and place.

10. Translate English jokes.

A.: Our math professor talks to himself, does yours?

B.: Yes, but he doesnt realize it. He thinks were listening.

¾ T T T ¾

I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go to the other room and read a book.

11. Read the text and retell the contents in Russian:


London (England), city in southeastern England, capital of Great Britain, at the head of the Thames estuary, west of its mouth on the North Sea. London is one of the worlds most important financial and cultural centers and is noted for its museums, performing arts, exchange and commodity markets, and insurance and banking functions, as well as a host of specialized services. In popular and traditional usage, the term City of London, or the City, is applied only to a small area (2.59 sq km/1 sq mi) that was the original settlement (ancient Londinium) and is now part of the business and financial district of the metropolis. The City of London and 32 surrounding boroughs form the Greater London metropolitan area, which has an area of 1579 sq km (610 sq mi).


The London Government Act (1963) authorized the creation of a two-tiered government consisting of 32 borough councils and the Greater London Council. The borough councils are locally elected and are responsible for local functions. Until its abolition in 1986, the Greater London Council administered broad functions for the metropolitan area as a whole, such as overall planning, the coordination of transportation systems, and the management of parks. The council comprised 100 councilors, locally elected, and 15 aldermen, elected by the councilors.

The historic Corporation of the City of London is equivalent in function to a borough council. Since the reign of King John in the 13th century, citizens of the City of London have had the right to elect their own mayor. The corporation government is composed of the Lord mayor, who is elected annually by members of the livery companies (guilds); 25 aldermen, who are elected for life; and 153 council members, who are elected annually from 25 wards.

(From an Encyclopedia)

Unit 2

Grammar:1. .


3. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

Good ø bye! `Bye ø bye! `So ø long! `See you ø soon! `See you ø later! `See you toømorrow! I `hope well `see someö more of you! Good ø night! Good ø day! Re`member me to...

`May I intro`duce `Mr. ö N.? `How do you ö do? `Glad to ö meet you. `Pleased to ö meet you. ö Please, intro`duce me to your ö friend. `Let me intro`duce you to `Doctor ö M. `Meet `Mr ö F. `Meet my ö friend, `Doctor ö M.

`Many ö thanks. `Thanks a ö lot. `Thats ö nice of you. `Not at ö all! `Thats all ø right! `Dont ö mention it!

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 a buyer -

2.                 a seller -

3.                 private property -

4.                 to own -

5.                 means of production -

6.                 incentive -

7.                 to earn profits -

8.                 cost - ,

9.                 cost price -

10.             selling price -

11.             to charge a price -

12.             polling booth -

13.             to undersell -


Text. The Market Economy

A Market, or free enterprise economy is one in which the decisions of many individual buyers and sellers interact to determine the answers to the questions of What, How and Who.

In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy. One of these is private property. By private property we mean the right of individuals and business firms to own the means of productions. Although markets exist in traditional and command economies, the major means of productions (firms, factories, farms, mines, etc.) are usually publicly owned. That is, they are owned by groups of people or by the government. In a market economy the means of production are owned by private individuals. Private ownership gives people the incentive to use their property to produce things that will sell and earn them a profit.

This desire to earn profit is a second ingredient in market economy. Often referred to as the profit motive, it provides the fuel that drives sellers to produce the things that buyers want, and at a price they are willing to pay.

The profit motive also gives sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost. Why? Because lower costs enable them to (1) increase their profit margins, the difference between cost and selling price, or (2) reduce prices to undersell during the competition, or (3) both.

Economists often compare markets to polling booths. However, unlike the booths in which people vote for politicians, markets provide a kind of economic polling booth for buyers to cast their votes (in the form of purchases) for the goods and services they want. Producers who interpret the votes correctly by producing the things that buyers demand can earn profits. Those who interpret the voting incorrectly, producing too much or too little, or charging a price that is too high or too low, do not earn profits. In fact, they often lose money.

Consumer votes can be a matter of life and death to business in a market economy.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

the decisions of many individual buyers and sellers interact; essential elements; the right to own the means of production; to exist in traditional and command economies; publicly owned; the incentive to use their property; the desire to earn profits; often referred to; to drive sellers to produce the things; the lowest possible cost; to increase their profit margins; unlike the booth; to vote for politicians; to cast their votes; to interpret the voting incorrectly; too much or too little; to lose money; a matter of life and death to business.

4. Answer the following questions:

1.                 What is a market, or free enterprise?

2.                 Are there several other essential elements in a market economy?

3.                 What do we mean by private property?

4.                 Who own the major means of production?

5.                 What does private ownership give people?

6.                 What is the profit motive?

7.                 Why does the profit motive give sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost?

8.                 To what do economists often compare markets?

9.                 What is the difference?

10.             When do producers lose money?


III. Grammar Exercises

5. Translate the following into Russian:

1. a market economy, a command economy, business firms, profit motive, profit margins, price theory, wage rates, rental changes, business investors, budget deficits, production materials, wage incentive programs, Austrian - American management, consultant, consumer interests, government planners, computer experts, industry specialists.

2. consumption of goods, fields of study, the interplay of supply and demand, explanation of prosperity and depression, demand for goods and services, means of production, lines of responsibility, the purchase of equipment, provision of work, sale of products, utilization of computers.


I ()

II ()


my- , , ,

mine- , , ,



your- , , ,

yours- , , ,







its- , ( -

its- ,



our- , , ,

ours- , , ,



your- , , ,

yours- , , ,




6. Put in the missing verbs and possessive forms:

Pronoun Verb Possessive

1. I come from Russia ... language is Russian.

2. He ... from Poland ... language is Polish.

3. You come from Sweden ... language is Swedish.

4. They ... from Norway ... language is Norwegian.

5. We come from Denmark ... language is Danish.

6. I come from Greece ... language is Greek.

7. He ... from Holland ... language is Dutch.

8. She ... from Germany ... language is German.

9. They come from China ... language is Chinese.

10. We ... from Spain ... language is Spanish.

11. He ... from Japan ... language is Japanese.

12. We come from England ... language is English.

7. Make ten questions, using these question words:

Who? What? Where? Why? How many? What kind of? What is the difference? Is there? Are there? Have you?

8. Read the text and retell the contents in Russian:


Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (1883-1946), British economist.

Keynes was born in Cambridge, England, and educated at Eton College and the University of Cambridge. He began his career in the India Office of the British government and wrote a highly regarded book, Indian Currency and Finance (1913). During World War I he worked in the treasury, which he represented at the Paris Peace Conference (1919). During the next decade he made a fortune speculating in international currencies, taught at Cambridge, and wrote Treatise on Probability (1921), a mathematical work, and A Treatise on Money (1930). In the latter, he sought to explain why an economy operates so unevenly, with frequent cycles of booms and depressions. Keynes closely examined the problem of prolonged depression in his major work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936). This book, which provided a theoretical defense for programs that were already being tried in Great Britain and by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the U.S., proposed that no self-correcting mechanism to lift an economy out of a depression existed. It stated that unused savings prolonged economic stagnation and that business investment was spurred by new inventions, new markets, and other influences not related to the interest rate on savings. Keynes proposed that government spending must compensate for insufficient business investment in times of recession.

Shortly after Great Britain entered World War II, Keynes published How to Pay for the War (1940), in which he urged that a portion of every wage earners pay should automatically be invested in government bonds. In 1942 he was made a baron, and two years later he headed the British delegation to the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, the Bretton Woods Conference. There he promoted establishment of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund.

Keyness ideas have profoundly influenced the economic policies of many governments since World War II, and many consider his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money one of the most significant theoretical works of the 20th century.

Unit 3

Grammar: 1. Past Simple.

2. it is (was)... that (who) ...



I. Language Practice

1. Read the sentences given below. Mind the stress and intonation in them:

There are `nineteen `large `lecture `halls in the `central ö `building. There are `one `hundred and `forty ø audi`toriums for `groups to ö `study.

There is `no `newspaper on the ö table. There is `nothing on the ö table.

Is there a `computer `centre in the ø `college? There were some scien`tific la`boratories `here last ö year. `What is there on the ö floor?

`How `many ö `parks are there in this ö `city? There are ö `many of them.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 to involve -

2.                 producer -

3.                 to be responsible for -

4.                 consumer -

5.                 manufacturer - ,

6.                 pervasive -

7.                 to determine -

8.                 needs and desires -

9.                 with regard to - ,

10.             to persuade -

11.             purchase -

12.             product line -

13.             promotion - ,

14.             in addition -

15.             to supervise - -

16.             warehouse - ,


Text. Marketing

Marketing, activities involved in getting goods from the producer to the consumer. The producer is responsible for the design and manufacture of goods. Early marketing techniques followed production and were responsible only for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of final sale. Now, however, marketing is much more pervasive. In large corporations the marketing functions precede the manufacture of a product. They involve market research and product development, design, and testing.

Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, educating them with regard to the availability of products and to important product features, developing strategies to persuade them to buy, and, finally, enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase. Marketing management includes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In most of these areas marketing has complete control; in others, as in product-line development, its function is primarily advisory. In addition, the marketing department of a business firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the profitable flow of goods from the factory or warehouse.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

Activities involved in getting goods; is responsible for the design; early marketing techniques; to the point of final stage; is much more pervasive; in large corporations; precede the manufacture of a product; testing; with regard to the availability of product; enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase; marketing management; regarding product lines; promotion; its function is primarily advisory; the marketing department; physical distribution; the profitable flow of goods.

4. Compose the questions using the following words:

1. is, marketing, what?

2. the producer, is, for what, responsible?

3. early marketing technique, did, what, follow?

4. the manufacture of a profit, where, precede, the marketing functions, do?

5. they, what, do, involve?

6. does, on, what, concentrate, marketing?

7. what, marketing management, does, include?

8. marketing, complete control, has, when?

9. the marketing department of a business firm, responsible for the physical distribution of the products, is?


III. Grammar Exercises

5. Form the Past Indefinite Tense of the following verbs:

to involve, to be, to precede, to concentrate, to buy, to get, to make, to have, to select, to contribute, to try, to assume, to spend, to give, to increase.

6. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Indefinite Tense and translate the sentences:

1. Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece (to write) about problems of wealth, property, and trade.

2. The Romans (to borrow) their economic ideas from the Greeks and (to show) the same contempt for trade.

3. In ancient and medieval times dire scarcity of resources (to be) common and (to affect) the lives of most human beings.

4. In England, Parliament (to pass) a Statute of Monopolies (1624).

5. The Second development (to be) the expansion of production that (to follow) the Industrial Revolution.

6. Cartels (to originate) in Germany during the 1870s.

7. As business (to become) more competitive, new and more complex corporate combinations (to come) on the scene.

7. Put all possible questions to the sentence:

1. During World War II the government of Germany utilized domestic cartels to produce armaments.

8. Translate into Russian paying attention to the emphatic construction it is ... that ...:

2. It is the planners who decide what goods and services will be produced.

3. It is the planners, too, with guidance from the countrys political leadership, who decide who will receive the goods and services produced.

4. It was at this time (1936) that Keynes work was published.

5. Indeed, it is from the early 1970s, when détente began to take shape.

9. Write in words these numbers:

11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 30, 40.

10. Use hundred, thousand, million with the words in brackets:

300 (dollar); 400 (pound); 10,000 (rouble); 500,000 (woman); 2,000,000 (man); 6,700 (child); 1,000 (computer).

11. Read the dates:

March 8, 1991; June 22, 1941; May 9, 1945; April 12,1961; January 1, 2000.

12. Translate English jokes:

A: Did the play have a happy ending?

B: Yes, everybody was happy when it ended.

A: A telegram from George, dear.

B: Well, did he pass the examination this time?

A: No, but he is almost at the top of the list of those who failed.

Unit 4

Grammar: 1. Future Simple.



I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

`Whats the ö time? `What ö time is it now? Can you `tell me the ø exact time? Its two ö oclock. No, its half past ö two. Ex`cuse me, its `not `half past ö two, its a `quarter past ö two. Im `not quite `sure, its a `quarter past ö two. Im aføraid its a `quarter to ö three already. I `havent `got a ö watch.

What ö date is it today? Its the 10th of Noövember. What öday of the `week is it? It is `Monday. Are you ø sure its the `tenth of November and its `Monday toøday? öYes, I ö am. ø Quite. Not at ö all.

`Whats the ö weather like today? `How is it ö outside? Its not ö warm today. It was warm ö yesterday. The `day was `beautiful and sunny. Its going to ö rain.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 customer - ,

2.                 survey -

3.                 warranty card -

4.                 sophisticated - ,

5.                 a sample of consumers -

6.                 population -

7.                 to typify - [`tipifai] -

8.                 fixed expenses -

9.                 insurance -

10.             rent -

11.             variable expenses -

12.             a break-even point - ,

13.             net loss -

14.             advertising -


Text. Product, Price, Promotion and Place: The Four Ps of Marketing

The total marketing concept involves four steps, or, as they are often called, the four Ps of marketing - product, price, promotion and place.

Product. The place to begin is with the product itself. A business must determine what kind of product potential customers want. Companies employ very complex market research techniques to find out. Surveys by phone, mail, or personal interview can reveal, exactly, whats on the consumers mind. The product warranty card that you return after a purchase provides marketing information too. Sophisticated research mathematics applied to a sample of consumers can typify the rest of the consumers. If we can find out what a few want, we can assume the others in the group of population will want the same things. Deciding who should be in the sample is the problem. Researchers have very detailed formulas for constructing marketing samples.

Price. Another major part of marketing is price. Companies have to decide on a product price that will cover all costs and also return a profit. Included in costs are such fixed expenses as rent and insurance. Variable expenses must be anticipated too. Those include the costs of material and commissions. These costs are used to compute a break-even point - the point at which income from sales equals fixed and variable expenses. On one side of this point, the company will have a net loss and on the other side, a net profit.

Promotion. Promotion is a key part of marketing because it is the way business get their messages to consumers.

Businesses would like to see steady growth rather than sudden surges in business. One function of promotion is to maintain a steady and growing demand. Promotions through advertising in the media, direct mailings or through personal contact are a few of the ways producers make their products known to consumers. If consumers dont know about a product, they wont buy it. Through advertising, businesses tell people what products are available. Advertising even gives them reasons to buy.

Place. The final part of marketing, the fourth P, is place. For a product to be useful, it has to be in place when and where it is needed. That should seem obvious. To sell products, business must anticipate when and where consumers will buy them. A hot dog at a baseball game on a sunny afternoon is an example of excellent product placement. A lemonade stand in the winter is not. Hot dogs have less value after the game, and lemonade has more value in the summer.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

4. Ask questions for these answers (work in pairs):

1.                 The total marketing concept involves four steps.

2.                 They are product, price, promotion and place.

3.                 Yes, it must.

4.                 Surveys by phone, mail, or personal interview can reveal it.

5.                 The product warranty card provides marketing information too.

6.                 It is price.

7.                 Variable expenses must be anticipated too.

8.                 A break-even point is the point at which income from sales equals fixed and variable expenses.

9.                 Promotion is a key part of marketing.

10.             Advertising gives people reasons to buy products.

11.             To sell products, businesses must anticipate when and where consumers will buy them.

5. Translate the following into Russian:

The Major Marketing Functions

Marketing Activity


Gathering information

Business firms collect information about the market to forecast potential sales


Before finished goods can be sold, they must be selected and purchased.


Goods must be shipped to the place where they are sold.


Goods must be advertised, promoted and sold.


Business firms had more goods than they can sell in a single day. These must be stored until they are sold.


Cash or credit must be found to pay for the goods the business intends to sell.

Standardizing and Grading

Standardizing is establishing uniform specifications for a product or a service. Grading is classifying products by quality and size.

Managing risk

People in business risk loss if things fail to go as planned. Steps taken to limit these risks fall into this category.


III. Grammar Exercises

6. Write out these sentences putting the verb in brackets into the future tense:

1. The study of economics (to help) you to understand economic forces better.

2. Cleaning up the river (to require) a major effort, and considerable expense.

3. A change in the price of one item (to result) in a shift in the demand for a substitute.

4. An increase in production costs (to have) the opposite effect - supply (to decrease).

5. As long as supply and demand remain unchanged, the equilibrium of market price (to remain) constant.

7. Make the sentences (a) interrogative, (b) negative:

1. They will try to economize to get the most from what they have.

2. Economics will also help you to fulfill your responsibilities as a citizen in a democracy.

3. Economists will agree that unemployment is bad.

4. Entrepreneurs will try to run their businesses to earn the greatest profits.

8. Fill in the blanks with the verbs can, may, must, have to, to be able (to):

1.                 Liquidity is a measure of the ease with which you ____ convert your savings to cash.

2.                 Since a society cannot have everything, it ____ decide which goods and services it will have now.

3.                 Americans ____ to own property for business purposes and use it to produce income.

4.                 Most producers ____ make more than one product.

5.                 Such systems ____ characterize isolated tribes or groups, or even entire countries.

6.                 Unable to compete with the Japanese, the company ____ to go out of business.

7.                 Any number of persons ____ contract to form a partnership.

8.                 You ____ earn the income to buy the things you want.

9.                 The number and value of things we ____ to buy depends upon the size of our income and how wisely we spend it.

10.             Most of the time, we ____ to keep track of our expenditures so we ____ to meet our immediate needs.

9. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the different functions of the word one.

1. In fact one common definition of economics is the study of how people make a living.

2. The market price is the one at which goods and services will actually be exchanged for money.

3. One of the main reasons people save their money is to earn interest.

4. Advertising provides us with information about prices, recent improvements in certain goods and services, and the availability of new ones.

5. The development of the socio-economic formations rises from the lower stage to the higher one.

10. State the part of speech of the following words:

management, speaker, production, economist, economical, economic, economics, national, technical, techniques, largely, product.

11. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes:

-ment: to manage, to agree, to govern, to employ, to invest, to develop.

-er: to consume, to programme, to produce, to buy, to sell, to plan, to own, to manufacture.

-tion: to produce, to distribute, to consume, to compete, to operate, to explain, to determine.

-or: to distribute, to invest, to operate, to regulate, to educate.

-ist: economy, sociology, psychology, behavior, special.

12. Read the text and retell the contents in Russian:

The Economy of London

Londons economy is distinguished by a multiplicity of activities that reflect the structure of the British economy as a whole. Service industries account for almost three-quarters of total employment; they include banking, insurance, the civil service, transportation, education, food and drink, printing and publishing, retailing, and numerous professional and custom services. Tourism also plays a vital part in Londons service industries. Next in importance are manufacturing and engineering and the latter has allied industries; each of these two sectors accounts for approximately 10 percent of total employment. The production of precision instruments, computers, aircraft, automobiles, chemicals, and clothing, as well as the refining of petroleum, are all important. Not unexpectedly, Greater London possesses the countrys greatest concentration of professional, technical, and administrative occupations, as well as the highest average income in Britain.

The central area of London is dominated by service employment and characterized by the localized concentration of various activities: banking and finance in the City, insurance and law in Holborn, government in Westminster, newspaper publishing in Fleet Street, medicine in Harley Street, tailoring in Savile Row, retail outlets in Bond and Oxford streets, and education in Bloomsbury. Industrial activity is important in the so-called Victorian Manufacturing Belt-a crescent-shaped band on the southern bank of the Thames River, extending northwest from the City and Southwark. Here, small-scale specialized production dominates.

Providing the raw materials and access to markets is the extensive Port of London, the major docks of which are located just downstream from London Bridge. London is one of Europes largest seaports and handles virtually every type of commodity and cargo. To the west of Central London are newer manufacturing areas such as Park Royal. Toward the periphery of Greater London and in the surrounding outer metropolitan area are more sophisticated and specialized industries, such as those manufacturing aircraft, computers, and electronic equipment. To the west of London, economic development has been stimulated by the presence of Heathrow International Airport, and to the south, by Gatwick International Airport.

(From an Encyclopedia)

Unit 5

Grammar: 1. Participle II.

2. Passive Voice.

3. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the intonation in the questions and the answers:

Have you a ø warranty card? Had you a ø warranty card? Have you got a ø warranty card? `How many `classes `have you `got toö day? `Is there an evening `department at the ø faculty? Are you a ø student? `You are a student of the `All-`Russian `Distance `Institute of Finance and ö Economics, arent ø you? `Do you ø study or ö work? Do you ø agree? `Im ø afraid I dont ö agree. `Do you `really think ø so? `Youre `quite ö right. `You didnt `study `last year, did ø you?

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 technique - [tek`ni:k] - ()

2.                 an organization chart -

3.                 to designate [`dezilneit] -

4.                 executives [il`zekjutivz] -

5.                 execution [eksi`kju:•n] -

6.                 foreperson -

7.                 department head - ()

8.                 with respect to -

9.                 supply - ,

10.             accounting -

11.             supervision -

12.             guidance [`laidcns] -

13.             records and reports -

14.             wage incentive program - -


Text. Industrial Management

Industrial Management, in business, term used to describe the techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.

In the theory of industrial management, organization has two principal aspects. One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility, drawn usually in the form of an organization chart that designates the executives of the business, from the president to the foreperson or department head, and specifies the functions for which they are responsible. The other principal aspect relates to the development of a staff of qualified executives.

Planning in industrial management has three principal aspects. One is the establishment of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials, and supplies; and accounting. The second aspect relates to the implementation of these policies by departments. The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision and guidance by the executive in authority; in this connection a distinction is generally made between top management, which is essentially administrative in nature, and operative management, which is concerned with the direct execution of policy. Control involves the use of records and reports to compare performance with the established standards for work.

Industrial management as just defined dates from the latter part of the 19th century. A notable impetus to its evolution was provided by the American engineer Frederick Taylor, who developed techniques for analyzing the operations involved in production and for setting standards for a days work. The techniques originally devised by Taylor were adopted by industrialists to other phases of business, including the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs either to replace or to supplement the piecework system that had previously prevailed. Industrial management experts who succeeded Taylor have applied his techniques to a wider range of business problems. Among the leading successors are the Austrian-American management consultant and educator Peter Drucker and the American economist, writer, and diplomat John Kenneth Galbraith.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

, ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; - ; ; ; .

4. Ask questions to these answers (work in pairs).

1.                 Organization has two principal aspects.

2.                 One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility.

3.                 An organization chart designates the executives of the business.

4.                 Yes, it does.

5.                 Planning has.

6.                 The third aspect relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments.

7.                 Yes, it is.

8.                 A distinction is made between top management and operative management.

9.                 Control involves the use of records and reports.

10.             The American engineer Frederick Taylor.

11.             It was adopted to the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs.

5. Translate the following into Russian:

Characteristics of Economic Markets

Perfect Competition

Monopolistic Competition



Numbers of Firms

Many independent firms. None able to control the market.

Many firms providing similar goods and services.

A few large firms providing similar goods and services.

A single large firm.

Control Over Price

None. Market determines price.

Influence limited by the availability of substitutes.

Often influenced by price leader.

Much control.

Product Differentiation

None. Products uniform and equal quality.

Products and services differentiated to meet the needs of specific markets.

Significant for some products like automobiles. Little for standardized products like gasoline.


Ease of Entry

Relatively easy to enter or leave the market

Relatively easy to enter or leave the market

Difficult. Often requires large capital investment.

Very difficult.


III. Grammar Exercises

6. Write down the following verbs in the form of Participle II:

to go, to increase, to begin, to buy, to sell, to make, to play, to write, to bring, to specialize, to operate, to understand, to expand.

7. Put the words in brackets in the Passive Voice:

1. Every society (to face) with the identical problem, the problem of scarcity.

2. The need to chose (to impose) on us all by our income, wealth and ability to borrow.

3. Individuals and families (to limit) by the size of their personal income, savings and ability to borrow.

4. In a free market economy, prices (to determine) by the interaction of the forces of supply and demand.

5. When two goods satisfy similar needs, they (to describe) as substitutes.

8. Turn the following from Active Voice into Passive Voice:

1. Profits, savings and borrowing power limit business firms.

2. Frederick Taylor provided a notable impetus to industrial management.

3. Keynes wrote many books.

4. The competitive system will determine business ethics.

5. Great complexity of organization and administration characterize the operation of large business firms.

6. Two or more persons own a business organization.

7. Sir Joseph Binks gives Tom a small cheque.

8. They gave Uncle Tom a cheque and a railway carriage.

9. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the functions of Participle II:

1. Salaries refer to earnings paid on a weekly or monthly basis.

2. The term wage typically refers to the earnings of workers paid by the hour or unit of production.

3. Used in certain ways, wealth can earn income.

4. Natural resources are the things provided by nature that go into the creation of goods and services.

5. Nearly 90 percent of goods and services produced in the U.S. each year come from privately owned firms.

6. Shares are traded in organized markets such as the New York Stock Exchange.

10. Express the following in Russian:

1. The more you know about the subject, the better career decisions you will be able to make.

2. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.

3. As a rule, the more scarce something is the higher its price will be, and the fewer people will want to buy it.

4. The higher the price, the greater the incentive to produce and sell the product.

11. Form adjectives with the help of suffixes:

-al: economic, nation, production, education, profession.

-able: to change, to exchange, to read, fashion, mistake.

12. Form adverbs with the help of the suffix -ly:

economical, political, different, rapid, definite, historical, complete, formal, practical, particular.

13. Read the text and retell the contents in Russian:

William Gates

Gates, William Henry, III (1955- ), American business executive, chairman and chief executive officer of the Microsoft Corporation, born in Seattle, Washington. Gates cofounded Microsoft in 1975 with Paul Allen, his high school friend and partner in computer language development from 1967. Fascinated by computers by the age of 12, Gates had been involved with various programming projects throughout high school. While attending Harvard in 1975, Gates teamed with Allen to develop a version of the BASIC computer programming language for the MITS Altair, the first personal computer. This work on BASIC for the Altair led Gates to drop out of Harvard in 1977 to pursue full-time his vision of a computer on every desk and in every home, the idea behind the Microsoft Corporation. In the early 1980s, Gates led Microsofts evolution from a developer of computer programming languages to a diversified computer software company producing computer operating systems and applications software as well as programming tools. This transition began with the introduction of MS-DOS, the operating system for the new IBM Personal Computer in 1981. Gates took a personal role in convincing other computer companies to standardize on MS-DOS, fueling computer industry growth in the 1980s through software compatibility. Gates also pushed Microsoft toward the introduction of application software such as the Microsoft Word word processing software for the IBM-PC. A key strategic move by Gates was to agree to develop application software for the Apple Macintosh prior to the release of the first Mac in 1984. This led to a strong position for Microsoft in applications that take advantage of the graphical user interface (GUI).

Much of Gates success rests on his ability to translate technical visions into market strategy, and to blend creativity with technical acumen. His willingness to bet on new technologies such as Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, and workgroup applications has paid off in keeping Microsoft at the forefront of computer hardware and software evolution.

Unit 6

Grammar: 1. Perfect Tenses.

2. .

3. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

Exö cuse me, (please). ö Pardon me. `Sorry to ... (in`trude, inter`rupt, inter`fere). `Look (ö here!) I say... (Say). `Just a ö minute! ö Hi! ö Hey! ø Yes? ø Well? `What ö is it? `What can I ö do for you? `What do you ö want? ø What? ö Sorry! `No `need to be ö sorry. `Sorry to ö trouble (`bother) you! Its no ö trouble at ö all. Ex`cuse my ö troubling you. `No `trouble at ö `all. I `beg your ö pardon! `No `pardon ö needed! I `beg ö `yours. I `beg your `pardon for `being ö late. `Better ø late than ö `never. I must aöpologize. You ö neednt. Why ö should you? Its `nothing to ö speak of. Its `unforögivable! Its `unö`pardonable!

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 to distribute - ,

2.                 to market - ,

3.                 equipment - ,

4.                 to shop -

5.                 leisure - ,

6.                 a retailer -

7.                 overhead(s) -

8.                 a wholesaler - ,

9.                 quantity -

10.             to bypass -

11.             trend -

12.             to call for -

13.             preselling -

14.             department store -

15.             discount stores (houses) -

16.             chain stores [t•ein] - (.)

17.             ownership - ,

18.             vending machines -

Text. Distributing the Product

Some products are marketed most effectively by direct sale from manufacturer to consumer. Among these are durable equipment-for example, computers, office equipment, industrial machinery and consumer specialties such as vacuum cleaners. The direct marketing of products such as cosmetics and household needs is very important.

Direct marketing by mail has been expanded to virtually all types of products and services. Working people find it easy to shop in their leisure hours by catalog because catalogs generally contain extensive product information. For retailers, the use of catalogs makes it possible to do business considerably beyond their usual trading area and with a minimum of overhead. Also important are credit cards, which have made it relatively easy to purchase by mail or telephone even such high-priced items as appliances, electronic equipment, and cameras. At least half the nations 50 leading corporations have mail-order divisions.

Television is a potent tool in direct marketing because it facilitates the demonstration of products in use. Also carving its own niche is telephone marketing, called telemarketing, a technique used in selling to businesses as well as to consumers. Most consumer products, however, move from the manufacturer through agents to wholesalers and then to retailers, ultimately reaching the consumer.

Wholesalers distribute goods in large quantities, usually to retailers, for resale. Some retail businesses have grown so large, however, that they have found it more profitable to bypass the wholesaler and deal directly with the manufacturers or their agents. Wholesalers first responded to this trend by adapting their operations so that they moved faster and called for a lower margin of profit.

Retailing has undergone even more change. Intensive preselling by manufacturers and the development of minimum-service operations, for example, self-service in department stores, have drastically changed the retailers way of doing business. Supermarkets and discount stores have become commonplace not only for groceries but for products as diversified as medicines and gardening equipment. More recently, warehouse retailing has become a major means of retailing higher-priced consumer goods such as furniture, appliances, and electronic equipment. Chain stores-groups of stores with one ownership-and cooperative groups have also proliferated. Special types of retailing, for example, vending machines and convenience stores, have also developed to fill multiple needs.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

direct sale from manufacturer to consumer; durable equipment; consumer specialties; household needs; direct marketing by mail; usual trading area; high-priced items; mail-order divisions; also carving its own niche; for resale; to call for a lower margin of profit; to undergo even more change; self-service;have drastically changed; warehouse retailing; higher-priced consumer goods; to fill multiple needs.

4. Compose the questions, using the following words:

1.                 products, are, what, by direct sale, marketed?

2.                 it, who, easy, to shop by catalog, finds?

3.                 have, what, relatively, it, easy, by mail or telephone, made, to purchase?

4.                 leading corporations, have, how many, mail-order-divisions?

5.                 television, why, is, direct marketing, a potent tool, in?

6.                 is, telemarketing, what?

7.                 grown, why, so large, some retail business, have?

8.                 wholesalers, how, to this trend, did, first, respond?

9.                 undergone, even more change, has, retailing?

10.             become, more recently, has, a major means of retailing higher-priced consumer goods, what?


III. Grammar Exercises

Active Voice

Perfect Tenses



Time Markers

Present Perfect

have (has)



Past Perfect




Future Perfect

shall (will) have


5. Read the sentences with adverbs of frequency



seen this film.



taken his book.



come here.



done their work.


not yet

charged a price.

Have you


been to the Crimea.

Read the same in the 3rd person singular.

6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the different usage of Perfect Tenses:

1.                 Economic monopolies have existed throughout much of human history.

2.                 The success of specialized marketing developments has caused many older organizations to revise their operating methods.

3.                 Keyness ideas have profoundly influenced the economic policies of many governments since World War II.

4.                 The Titanic had already gone down when another ship arrived.

5.                 Some passengers had been in the icy water for hours when they were saved.

6.                 When another ship arrived, about 1500 people had already lost their lives.

7.                 Ecological concerns will have affected product design and marketing.

8.                 By the end of the year the company will have signed this contract.

9.                 Who will have finished first?

10.             How much will they have won?

7. A manager went away on business. He left of things to be done. He is back now. Arrange a conversation between him and one of his employees. Study the list. Follow the model.

The list of things to be done:

1. Contact the joint-stock company P-A.

2. Send a telex to Lamberton Robotics.

3. Telephone Mr. Green.

4. Sign the contract for the delivery of equipment.

5. Take the customers representatives to the plant.

6. Take part in the talks with the British customer.


A. Have you telephoned Mr. Green?

B. Yes, I have.

A. When did you telephone him?

B. I telephoned him last week.

A. Thats good /fine/ O.K.

Use of the verb let.

Our teacher never let us speak Russian at English lessons.


Let me (us) do it.

Lets (let us) speak only English.

Let them know about it.

Let the cat out.





Let them understand their mistakes.

Let her speak English.


8. Complete the sentences:

1. Lets increase...

2. Let me determine...

3. Let me supervise...

4. Let her discuss...

5. Let the wholesalers...

6. Let the small retailers...

9. Translate the following sentences:

1. When he comes to the office he will call the company.

2. Well get in touch with them as soon as the goods are delivered.

3. We will clear up the point before he leaves.

4. He couldnt come to the lecture because he was ill.

5. He walked slowly for he was not in a hurry.

6. As there were no more questions the chairman thanked the reporter for his interesting report.

7. They thought that the bell had rung.

10. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes:

-ant: to emigrate, to dominate, to consult, to participate, to account.

-ese: China, Japan, Sudan.

- ian|-an: statistics, Russia, America, Hungary, Bulgaria, Brazil.

11. Translate English jokes:

A famous Hungarian physicist had just finished reading his scientific paper. It was the first time he had ever made a report in English. After he had finished an American physicist came up to him.

Say, in what language did you read your paper?

Didnt you understand that?

Well, yes, of course. But why did you put in so many English words?

12. Read the text and retell the contents in Russian


Text. Territorial and Administrative Division of Government in the United Kingdom

In Great Britain the county, or shire, is the principal subdivision of the country for political, administrative, judicial, and other purposes. Counties are used in England and Wales but have been replaced by other administrative units in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Before the Norman Conquest of the 11th century, the chief unit of local government in England was the shire, which had originated in the Saxon communities of the 5th century. Each shire was ruled by an ealdorman (alderman), but after the 11th century his functions were taken over by the shire-reeve, or sheriff, who was appointed by the king. By the 14th century a county court, composed of several justices of the peace, or magistrates, had developed to help the sheriff administer the county. Over the centuries these crown-appointed magistrates gradually became the primary administrators of counties. Each county also became the constituency for the elections of knights of the shire, or county members of Parliament.

This system of county government, with centrally appointed justices of the peace holding legislative, judicial, and executive powers, became inadequate in the 19th century as the suffrage was extended, government services expanded, and industrial cities continued to grow. To remedy this undemocratic system, the Local Government Act of 1888 established county councils, with members elected by local residents, to take over the legislative and executive duties of the magistrates. The act also replaced the historic counties with new administrative counties, which often had different boundaries. The act also created about 60 county boroughs; these were cities that were given county powers in order to better provide local government services.

The Local Government Act of 1972 reorganized the county system again; 47 new counties contained all urban as well as rural areas in their boundaries, and each county was subdivided into several districts, which numbered almost 300 in all. A British county provides police and fire services, education, social-welfare services, public transport, traffic regulation, consumer protection, libraries, and some highways and parks. The county council is the general governing board of a county; it is a large body, with 50 to 100 popularly elected members, and much of its basic administrative work is delegated to committees.

Outside the United Kingdom, the system of county government was adopted, with variations, in most of the countries settled from Britain. In Canada, however, the county system never became universal; where it exists, the county councils are generally much smaller than in England. New Zealand has had county councils since 1876. In Australia the administrative unit is generally called the shire, though the name county is used for larger areas.

(From the Encyclopaedia)

Unit 7

Grammar: 1. Participle I (Present Participle Active).

2. Continuous Tenses.

3. it.

4. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

ø Well... `Let me ö see... `Let me ö think... By the ø way... They ø say... ø First. `First of ø all... In `my oøpinion... To `my mind... To `tell the ø truth... I `dont quite ö follow you. Its `not to the ö point. `Keep to the ö point. `Generally ø speaking... As `far as I ø know... As to ø me... In ø fact... The matter ø is that... In `any ø case... `Go aöhead. On the ø one hand... On the ø other hand... Above ø all ... Lets get down to ... To `sum it ø up... `On the ø whole... `All in ø all... `After ø all... In `short... `That exö plains it. Lets round ö off.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                 responsibility -

2.                 similar -

3.                 speciality [`spe•clti] - .

4.                 human -

5.                 issue -

6.                 manufacturing personnel -

7.                 schedule [`•edju:l] - ,

8.                 raw materials -

9.                 smoothness - ,

10.             assets - ,

11.             excessive inventories -

12.             sacrificing - ,

13.             delivery -

14.             advantage -

15.             current cost -

Text. Production Management THE "FIVE M'S"

Operations management (known in industry as production management) is a responsibility similar in level and scope to other specialties such as marketing and to human resource and financial management. In manufacturing operations, production management includes responsibility for product and process design, planning and control issues involving capacity and quality, and organization and supervision of the workforce.

Production management's responsibilities are summarized by the "five M's": men, machines, methods, materials, and money. "Men" refers to the human element in operating systems. Since the vast majority of manufacturing personnel work in the physical production of goods, "people management" is one of the production manager's most important responsibilities.

The production manager must also choose the machines and methods of the company, first selecting the equipment and technology to be used in the manufacture of the product or service and then planning and controlling the methods and procedures for their use. The flexibility of the production process and the ability of workers to adapt to equipment and schedules are important issues in this phase of production management.

The production manager's responsibility for materials includes the management of flow processes-both physical (raw materials) and information (paperwork). The smoothness of resource movement and data flow is determined largely by the fundamental choices made in the design of the product and in the process to be used.

The manager's, concern for money is explained by the importance of financing and asset utilization to most manufacturing organizations. A manager who allows excessive inventories to build up or who achieves level production and steady operation by sacrificing good customer service and timely delivery runs the risk that overinvestment or high current costs will wipe out any temporary competitive advantage that might have been obtained.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

; ; , ; -; ; ; ; - ; , ; - ; .

4. Answer the following questions:

1.                 What is operations management?

2.                 What does production management include in manufacturing operations?

3.                 What are the five Ms?

4.                 Why is people management one of the production managers most important responsibilities?

5.                 How must the production manager choose the machines and methods of the company?

6.                 In what phase of production management the flexibility of the production process is an important issue?

7.                 What does the production managers responsibility for materials include?

8.                 How is the managers concern for money explained?

9.                 What manager runs the risk?

10.             Will high current costs wipe out any temporary competitive advantage?


III. Grammar Exercises


ing forms




participle I




(smb. working)

Active Voice

Continuous Tenses



Participle I

(verb + ing)

Time Markers

Present Continuous

am, is, are



Past Continuous

was, were




Future Continuous

shall (will) be



5. Write down the following verbs in the form of Participle I.

1. to manage, to know, to include, to involve, to refer, to operate, to work, to select, to control, to plan, to determine, to explain, to finance, to get, to study, to write, to persuade, to increase, to die.

6. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the functions of Participle I:

1.                Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, educating them, developing strategies to persuade them to buy.

2.                For retailers, the use of catalogs makes it possible to do business considerably beyond their usual trading area.

3.                The whole month I was working hard. We were auditing accounts of a joint venture.

4.                The State Tax Service in Russia is a new organization but its role is becoming very important because more and more new businesses are appearing in the country.

5.                The majority of corporations are small, differing little in their characteristics from other forms of business.

6.                An Italian delegation arrived yesterday. At 9 we were meeting the delegation at the airport, at 12 we were having lunch, at 2 we were discussing the contract.

7.                Those who interpret the voting incorrectly, producing too much or too little, or charging a price that is too low, do not earn profits.

8.                At least half the nations 50 leading corporations have mail-order divisions.

9.                You phoned at 9.15, didnt you? We were discussing our business plan at that time.

10.           Also carving its own niche is telephone marketing.

sunny rainy frosty cloudy

and hot and foggy and snowy and windy

7. Look at the pictures. Ask and answer the question as in the model:

Model: A. Whats the weather like today?

B. Its hot and dry.

8. Read the dialogue and make up your own dialogue:

A. Look, Ann, is it cold outside?

B. I think its not cold. Its warm.

A. Whats the temperature today?

B. Its 4 below zero.

A. Lets go to the scating-ring.

B. Im sorry, Im busy.

A. What a pity!



data [`deitc]


addenda [c`dendc]



errata [i`reitc]


[memc`r ndcm]


[memc`r ndc]


phenomena [fi`n]minc]


criteria [krai`ticric]


bases [`beisi:z]


crises [`kraisi:z]

analysis[c`n lisis]

analyses [c`n lisi:z]


theses [`›i:si:z]


stimuli [`stimjulai]



indexes [`indckscs]

indices [`indisi:z]


apparatus [cpc`reitcs]

9. Read the text and retell it in Russian:

Science and Technology in Britain

Since the first artificial splitting of the atom at Cambridge, in 1932, by Sir John Cockcroft and Dr. E. T. S. Walton, Britain's nuclear scientists have made continuous progress in harnessing atomic energy. Today eight commercial nuclear power stations are supplying electricity for factories and homes and others are being built. Some of Britain's top scientists are engaged in space research on projects such as upper atmosphere probes with British-built rockets at Woomera, Australia, and inwork on satellite communications. Others are making vital discoveries in the laboratory into the very nature of life itself.

Britain is pre-eminent in radio astronomy and in many fields of electronics including miniaturisation. one of the most important factors in the electronics revolution, and in radar for marine and aviation purposes. Much basic work was done in Britain on electronic computers. British advances in medicine include penicillin and other antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, heart-lung machines, a new anti-viral agent, Interferon, of great potential value and many other important developments in the treatment of disease.

British contributions to science include many great discoveries linked with famous names - Sir Isaac Newton (theory of gravitation), Robert Boyle ("the father of modern chemistry"), Michael Faraday (whose discoveries gave rise to the electrical industry), and Henry Cavendish (properties of hydrogen). In the present century - J. J. Thomson, Lord Rutherford and Sir James Chadwick (basic work on nuclear science), Gowland Hopkins (the existence of vitamins), Sir William Bragg (X-ray analysis), and many others. Medicine owes much to such pioneers as William Harvey (circulation of the blood), Edward Jenner (vaccination), Joseph Lister (antiseptics). Sir Ronald Ross (who proved the relation between malaria and mosquitoes).

Since 1945 there have been 27 British scientists who have received international recognition for their work by gaining Nobel awards. There are over 200 learned scientific societies in Britain. In ten years Britain has doubled her total number of qualified scientists.

10. Translate English jokes:

Which of You Three?

A. - Hallo? Is that Ted Wells?

B. - Yes. Who is speaking?

A. - Sam.

B. - Who? I dont hear.

A. - I say Sam: Sid, Ada, Mary. Do you hear?

B. - Yes, I do. But which of three is speaking?

¾ T T T ¾

Mother: Well, what is Mary doing?

Jane: Well, if the ice is as thick as she thinks, she is skating, but if the ice is as thin as I think, she is swimming.

Unit 8

Grammar: 1. . .

2. Future-in-the-Past.

3. .

4. This-these, that-those .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

`Are you `going to the ø shop?

ö Yes, I ö am. ö No, I am ö not.

`Are you `waiting for a ø taxi or for a ö bus.

I am `waiting for a ö bus.

`What are you ö doing?

I am `reading a ö magazine.

`What `magazine are you ö reading?

I am `reading an `English ö magazine.

`Where are you ö going?

I am `going to the ö theatre.

`Who is `going to the theatre ö with you?

My `friend ö is.

`Why are you sitting ö here?

Im `sitting ö because Im ö tired.

`What were you `doing when I `came ö in?

I was `looking for my `new ö slides.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                hardware store -

2.                sophomore [`s]fcm]:] - -

3.                stock -

4.                job market -

5.                supervisor -

6.                employee [/empl]i`i:] -

7.                inventory -

8.                skill - ,

9.                to hint -

10.           establish -

11.           loan -

12.           labor coast -

13.           in the long run -

14.           promotion -

15.           incentive -


Text A. How Competition Benefits Us All.

In a competitive market, producers constantly strive to reduce their production costs as a way to increase profits. The increased efficiency that allows them to reduce their costs also enables producers to sell their goods at a lower price. Thus, by promoting efficiency, competition leads to lower prices.

Competition also motivates producers to improve the quality and increase the variety of goods and services. Consumers soon learn which brand offers the best value, and that firm will earn greater profits than its competitors. Similarly, producers in a competitive market must constantly look for new and attractive goods and services to win a larger share of the market.

As firms compete for consumers dollar in a market, their efforts lead to the production of a variety of better-quality products at the lowest possible prices. And since we are all consumers, it follows that competition benefits us all.

Text B. Competition in Many Markets: An Example.

On weekends during the school year and in the summer, David Scott works in a small local hardware store. When he began his job, as a sophomore, he was a stock clerk, and he thought himself lucky to have any job. Each year there had been a lot of competition for jobs in his city, especially in May and June when college students entered the local job market. In the spring of his senior year David decided to be more selective about where he worked and how much he earned. He decided to ask his boss for a raise to become a supervisor of the younger employees at the store.

He told his boss that since he learned the computer-assisted inventory and ordering system and other special skills he was more valuable, and should be paid accordingly. He hinted that he might seek employment elsewhere. Another store in town was advertising for someone with his skills.

Davids boss, Jay Richards, the entrepreneur who had established the small hardware store two years earlier, faced competition every day. Since starting his business, he had been in competition with other buyers and sellers in the marketplace. He competed with other buyers when he purchased the land for his store. He competed with other borrowers when he applied for his bank loan. He competed every week for the best deals on the goods he bought from his wholesalers. Jay knew that he also had to compete for customers with other hardware stores.

One of his major expenses was labor. He had to keep his labor costs down to meet his other expenses and earn a profit. He knew that David would cost him more, but he decided to pay him the higher wage because David had acquired skills that made him more productive. Jay reasoned that Davids experience and knowledge would help the business to save money in the long run.

Supply and Demand.

David was also free to sell his labor somewhere else. He could have competed with others for another job. From the newspaper ad he knew at least one other job was available. Maybe there were others. He wasnt sure. He also wasnt sure about the supply of other workers with his skills. He wondered whether he would get the raise and promotion if there were lots of people who could do the job.

Davids boss was also free to interview and hire other workers. In their own ways David and Jay were both trying to get what each thought would be best. They were competing.

Profit Motive and Competition.

Competition drives Jay Richards to do what he can to reduce costs and increase sales in order to increase profits. Of course, his competitors will be doing this too. They also want to earn the greatest profits. The profit motive (the efforts to maximize profits) is free enterprises most important incentive.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Text A. Give English equivalents to:

; ; ; ; ; ; .

4. Text B. Ask questions for these answers (work in pairs):

1.                David Scott usually works on weekends during the school year in summer.

2.                He was a stock clerk.

3.                It was in May and June because college students entered the local job market.

4.                He was going to become a supervisor of the younger employees at the store.

5.                He learned the computer-assisted inventory and ordering system and other special things.

6.                Another store in town was advertising for someone with his skills.

7.                He had established the small hardware store two years earlier.

8.                He had been in competition with other buyers and sellers.

9.                When he purchased the land for his store.

10.           Yes, he did. He competed with other borrowers.

11.           Yes, he did. He knew that he also had to compete for customers.

12.           Because David had acquired skills that made him more productive.

5. Combine the words into sentences. Translate them into Russian.

1.                could, his labor, David, else, sell, somewhere.

2.                one other job, knew, from the newspaper ad, he, was available, at least.

3.                who, there, many people, were, the same job, do, could.

4.                entrepreneurs, always, and, competing, employees, are.

5.                wanted, to reduce, in order to increase, Jay Richards, costs, and, profits, increase sales.

6.                incentive, the profit motive, most important, is free, enterprises.


III. Grammar Exercises

1.                I hope your friend will come and see us on Sunday.

2.                I hoped...

3.                This statistician thinks he will get the latest data.

4.                This statistician thought...

5.                My friend is sure his profession is better than mine.

6.                My friend was sure...

7.                I think they televise international economic events.

8.                I thought...

9.                The manager believes that the work was done thoroughly.

10.           The manager believed ... and so he didnt check it himself.

11.           Mother was sure that her son made good progress at the institute.

12.           Mother was sure ... since the holiday.

13.           We are afraid the firm wont earn great profits.

14.           We were afraid...

15.           I am happy they call me up now and then.

16.           I was happy...

7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Sequence of Tenses:

1.                I asked Mr. Olegov where he lived.

2.                He said that he lived in Moscow.

3.                He told me that he worked at a large plant and described where the plant was.

4.                I told him that I knew the plant because I had worked there for about two years.

5.                I said that I didnt work there any longer because I was studying at the Institute of Finance and Economics.

6.                Mr. Olegov asked me if I knew the economists working at the plant.

7.                I told him that I knew most of them.

8.                He told me that the plant had greatly increased its production and was producing almost three times more goods than four years ago.

9.                The other day the manager was asked if he would introduce the new machine constructed by one of the workers with the help of the engineers.

10.           He answered that he would do it as soon as the tests were completed.


Indirect Speech.




Prefect Continuous




am writing ()

have written


have been writing

( )







He said (that)


was writing

( 7 )

had written

7 )

had been writing

( 3 , ...)





shall/will write


will be writing

( 7 )

will have written

( 7 )

will have been writing ( 3 , ...)






would write

would be writing

would have written

would have been writing


, .

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech





this, these

, ,


, ,


that day


(the) next day, the following day


the day before, the previous day

next week/year


the next week/ year


last week

the previous week

last year

the year before


Special Questions

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

He asks me, Where do you live?

He asks (me) where I live.

He asked her, Where does your father work?

He asked her where her father worked.

He asked me, Where did your father work?

He asked me where my father had worked.

General Questions

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

He asks me, Are you a worker?

He asks me if I am a worker.

He asked me, Are you a worker?

He asked (me) if I was a worker.

He asked her, Were you a student?

He asked (her) if she had been a student.

8. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct forms:

1. I thought that you (to arrive) at some decision.

2. I believed that a long-term loan (to be) absolutely necessary for that program.

3. I didnt know if you (to apply) for this job.

4. They said they (to work) seven hours a day.

5. Did he say that there (to be) a lot of problems with this agreement?

6. The manager said that we (to need) to reduce the amount of corporate income tax.

9. Change the direct speech into indirect speech:

1. The manager asked, Does this project require long term financing?

2. The director asked, Are we repaying debts in due time?

3. He asked, Did this debt carry interest?

4. The head of the company asked the Board of Directors, Are we able to repay the loan?

5. The manager asked the customer, Can you wait a little longer?

6. The customer asked, Were the terms specified in any agreement?

10. Translate the following sentences:

1. Markets provide a kind of economic polling booth for buyers to cost their votes for the goods and services they want.

2. Promotion is a key part of marketing because it is the way business get their messages to consumers.

3. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, enterprises and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select.

4. Lets suppose that you recently managed to save enough to buy the CD player you always wanted.

11. Translate the sentences:

1. The railways of Russia are much longer than those of England.

2. The climate of the Crimea is warmer then that of the Ural.

3. Our resources of oil are greater than those of Poland.

4. The rivers in the West of our country are not so long as those in the Eastern part.

12. Translate the following. Try to understand the meaning of suffixes:

Example: watch (N) - watchful (A)


life (N) - lifeless (A)


1. a sleepless night; 2. moonless night; 3. childless family; 4. helpless people; 5. wonderful evening; 6. a starless black sky; 7. a watchful man; 8. landless farmers; 9. a jobless man; 10. a powerful monopoly; 11. a hopeful project; 12. a painful problem.

13. Translate English jokes.

The young candidate for admission to the navy was being given a test to determine his general education. One of the questions puts to him was: What kind of animals eat grass? The young man fidgeted and looked out of the window, but apparently could think of no answer.

Come, come, said the admiral who was examining him, Surely, you can answer a simple question like that: what kinds of animals eat grass?

The boy brightened up. Animals! he exclaimed, I thought you said admirals.

Unit 9

Grammar: 1. Passive Voice.

2. .

3. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

Helölo, Tom!

Helølo, Nick ö. Here you ø are at last. `What have you been doing ö all this `time?

You ö see. Ive been `awfully ø busy `all this ö week. Ive `got a ö new job.

`What `sort of ö job?

Im an `assistant at a ö lab.

,Congratuö`lations, old ø chap! The `work must be very ö interesting.

Oh ö yes, it ö is.

`What is the ö `salary?

The ø same as `that of `all the ö other assistants. `Quite enough to ø live on and to ö put by a little.

2. Read and translate. Mind stress and pronunciation in the following nouns and verbs.

export import progress record transport

`expo:t n `impo:t n `proulres n `reko:d n `tr nspo:t n

eks`po:t v im`po:t v prc`gres v ri`ko:d v tr ns`po:t v

conflict increase outlay produce retail

`k]nflikt n `inkri:s n `autlei n `pr]dju:s n `ri:teil n

kcn`flikt v in`kri:s v aut`lei v prc`dju:s v ri:`teil v

3. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                partnership - ,

2.                common law -

3.                civil law -

4.                to be entitled -

5.                to provide -

6.                dormant partner -

7.                to be liable for smbs debts - -

8.                obligations -

9.                incur - , -

10.           to invisage [in`vizi] -

11.           shareholder -

12.           board of directors -

13.           regime [rei`¥i:m] - .

14.           managing director - -

15.           to authorize -

16.           to appoint -

17.           general supervision -

18.           issue -

19.           share -

20.           bond -

21.           borrowing -

22.           executing officer -

23.           treasurer - .

24.           to confide to - -

25.           remuneration - ,

26.           to dismiss -

27.           to vest powers -


Text. Management and Control of Companies

The simplest form of management is the partnership. In Anglo-American common-law and European civil-law countries, every partner is entitled to take part in the management of the firm's business, unless he is a limited partner; however, a partnership agreement may provide that an ordinary partner shall not participate in management, in which case he is a dormant partner but is still personally liable for the debts and obligations incurred by the other managing partners.

The management structure of companies or corporations is more complex. The simplest is that envisaged by English, Belgian, Italian, and Scandinavian law, by which the shareholders of the company periodically elect a board of directors who collectively manage the company's affairs and reach decisions by a majority vote. Under this regime it is common for a managing director (directeur général, direttore generale) to be appointed, often with one or more assistant managing directors, and for the board of directors to authorize them to enter into all transactions needed for carrying on the company's business, subject only to the general supervision of the board and to its approval of particularly important measures, such as issuing shares or bonds or borrowing. The U.S. system is a development of this basic pattern. By the laws of most states it is obligatory for the board of directors elected periodically by the shareholders to appoint certain executive officers, such as the president, vice president, treasurer, and secretary. The latter two have no management powers and fulfill the administrative functions that in an English company are the concern of its secretary; but the president and in his absence the vice president have by law or by delegation from the board of directors the same full powers of day-to-day management as are exercised in practice by an English managing director.

The most complex management structures are those provided for public companies under German and French law. The management of private companies under these systems is confided to one or more managers (gérants, Geschäftsführer) who have the same powers as managing directors. In the case of public companies, however, German law imposes a two-tier structure, the lower tier consisting of a supervisory committee (Aufsichtsrat) whose members are elected periodically by the shareholders and the employees of the company in the proportion of two-thirds shareholder representatives and one-third employee representatives (except in the case of mining and steel companies where shareholders and employees are equally represented) and the upper tier consisting of a management board (Vorstand) comprising one or more persons appointed by the supervisory committee but not from its own number. The affairs of the company are managed by the management board, subject to the supervision of the supervisory committee, to which it must report periodically and which can at any time require information or explanations. The supervisory committee is forbidden to undertake the management of the company itself, but the company's constitution may require its approval for particular transactions, such as borrowing or the establishment of branches overseas, and by law it is the supervisory committee that fixes the remuneration of the managers and has power to dismiss them.

The French management structure for public companies offers two alternatives. Unless the company's constitution otherwise provides, the shareholders periodically elect a board of directors (conseil d'administration), which "is vested with the widest powers to act on behalf of the company" but which is also required to elect a president from its members who "undertakes on his own responsibility the general management of the company," so that in fact the board of directors' functions are reduced to supervising him. The similarity to the German pattern is obvious.

Dutch and Italian public companies tend to follow the German pattern of management, although it is not expressly sanctioned by the law of those countries. The Dutch commissarissen and the Italian sindaci, appointed by the shareholders, have taken over the task of supervising the directors and reporting on the wisdom and efficiency of their management to the shareholders.

II. Exercises on the Text:

4. Give Russian equivalents to:

every partner is entitled to take part in; a partnership agreement may provide; he is a dormant partner; personally liable for debs and obligations; who collectively manage the companys affairs; by a majority vote; under this regime; to enter into all transactions; approval of particular important measures; issuing shares or bonds; by the law of most states; to appoint certain executive officers; to fulfill the administrative functions; the same full powers of day-to-day management;

the management of private companies; in the case of public companies; a two-tier structure; supervisory committee; two-third shareholder representatives and employees; the affairs of the company; which can require information or explanations; to forbid to undertake the management; approval for particular transactions; establishment of branches overseas; to fix remuneration ; to offer two alternatives; on behalt of the company; the similarity is obvious; it is not expressly sanctioned by the law; reporting on the wisdom and efficiency.

5. Ask questions for these answers (work in pairs):

1.                Every partner is entitled to take part in the management of the firms business.

2.                The management structure of companies or corporations is more complex.

3.                The company periodically elects a board of directors.

4.                They reach decisions by a majority vote.

5.                Particularly important measures are issuing shares or bonds or borrowing.

6.                Yes, it is. The U.S. system is a development of this basic pattern.

7.                The board of directors appoints certain executive officers.

8.                The treasurer and secretary fulfill the administrative functions.

9.                The most complex management structures are in Germany and France.

10.           It is confided to one or more managers.

11.           German law imposes a two-tier structure in the case of public companies.

12.           The affairs of the company are managed by the management board.

13.           It must report to the supervisory committee.

14.           The supervisory committee is forbidden to undertake the management of the company itself.

15.           It fixes the remuneration of the managers.

16.           The French management structure offers two alternatives.

17.           Yes, it is. A board of directors is vested with the widest powers to act on behalt of the company.

18.           The board of directors functions are reduced to supervising the company.

19.           They have taken over the task of supervising the directors.

6. Read, translate and analyze the scheme:


Organization of a Corporation


Board of Directors


Vice President

Vice President



Department Head

Department Head

Department Head

Department Head







III. Grammar Exercises


Formation of the Passive Tense Forms




I am ü

He is ý invited

We areþ

I was ü

He was ý invited

We wereþ


I am ü

He is ý being

We areþ invited

I was ü

He was ý being

We were þ invited


I have ü

He has ý been

We have þinvited

I ü

He ý had been

We þ invited

Perfect Continuous




Future in the Past


I shall/will ü

He will ý be invited

We shall/will þ

I should/would ü

He would ý be invited

We should/would þ





I shall/will ü

He will ý have been

We shall/will þ invited

I should/would ü

He would ý have been

We should/would þ invited

Perfect Continuous



7. State the tense and voice form of the verbs:

can be divided; are owned; will be used; was provided; has been expanded; is made; might have been obtained; shall be asked; is being done; have been translated; should be called; were being built; was followed; had been closed; will have been helped; would have been called.

8. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Dont put on that funny hat. You will be laughed at. 2. I hope my work will be approved of. 3. Our professor is always attentively listened to. 4. In producing these things the new synthetic material has been made use of. 5. His words were not taken notice of. 6. Will the results of our work be referred to by? 7. The proposal was objected to by. 8. She has always been well spoken of. 9. All the new data have been looked through with great attention. 10. Where have you been? You have been looked for everywhere.

9. Give the corresponding passive construction:

1. They will insist on your arrival. 2. They told us very interesting news. 3. They do not allow people to own this plot of land. 4. They asked me to take part in this conference, but I refused. 5. This boy told a lie once, therefore nobody believes him now. 6. They speak much of every new achievement in computer programmes. 7. I dont think you pay much attention to the obligations of your company. 8. Nobody wondered at the excellent results of this business enterprise. 9. Have you sent for the managing director? 10. They gave us all necessary information. 11. I looked for the warranty card everywhere, but I could not find it anywhere. 12. This executive officer took great care of the advertising of their products.

10. Translate the following into Russian:

1.                Since the beginning of that extraordinary era of economic progress ushered in by the Industrial Revolution, old ways of conducting business have been modified, and new forms of business organization have been introduced.

2.                Unless an activity is specifically prohibited by law, no line of business is closed to an owner.

3.                Unless a limited partnership has been established, all parties equally share the burden of loss and debts.

4.                Some products are marketed most effectively by direct sale from manufacturer to consumer.

5.                Simple transactions are completed by clerks.

6.                Displays must be supplied and set up, and cooperative advertising programs may be worked out.

7.                Store clerks should be trained in a knowledge of the manufacturers products.

8.                The production plan must be made to meet fluctuating market demands.

9.                Workers must be hired, trained, and assigned in synchronization with the changing production processes and schedules.

10.           Commodity analysis studies the ways in which a product or product group is brought to market.

Forms of the Infinitive




to ask


to be asked - ()

(to be + V3)


to be asking

(to be + V-ing)



to have asked () ( )

(to have + V3)

to have been asked () ( -)

(To have been + V3)

Perfect Continuous

to have been asking

(to have been + V-ing)


11. Define the form of the Infinitive:

to manage; to be informed; to have been over; to be improving; to have been entering; to be investigated; must be raining; shall discuss; to have been taken.

12. a) Form verbs using the suffix -en:

wide, deep, broad, strength, length, sharp, moist.

b) Form verbs from the following nouns using the suffix -ize:

victim, sympathy, patron, character, organ.

c) Form nouns from the following nouns and adjectives using the suffix -ism:

race, communist, capital, social, feudal, nominal.

13. Read the text and retell it in Russian:

Paul Samuelson (1915-) And Milton Friedman (1912-)

Two Views of the Proper Role of Government in the Economy

Paul Samuelson and Milton Friedman are two of America's most distinguished economists. In recognition of their achievements, Samuelson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970 and Friedman in 1976. Both spent most of their professional lives on the faculty of major universities (Samuelson at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Friedman at the University of Chicago). Given their similarities, one would think that the two would also hold similar views on economic issues. Nothing could be further from the truth. And, some of their sharpest differences center on the question of what ought to be the proper role of government in the economy.

Classical economists in the tradition of Adam Smith had long recognized the need for government to provide goods and services that would not or could not be provided by the private sector (like national defense). But they urged that this participation be kept to a minimum.

But Samuelson argued that too many of the problems the classical economists wanted to leave to the marketplace were not subject to its influence. These externalities, affecting things like public health, education, and environmental pollution, were not subject to the laws of supply and demand. Consequently, it was up to government to establish goals for the economy and use its powers to achieve them.

Milton Friedman sees things differently. Like the classical economists of old, he regards supply and demand as the most powerful and potentially beneficial economic forces. The best that government can do to help the economy, in Friedman's view, is to keep its hands off business and allow the market to "do its thing." The minimum wage laws are a case in point. Whereas Samuelson endorses minimum wage laws as a means of helping workers at the bottom of the income ladder, Friedman would argue that by adding to unemployment, they harm the very people they were designed to help. That is, he explains, by increasing labor costs, minimum wage laws make it too expensive for many firms to hire low-wage workers. As a result, those who might otherwise be employed are laid off.

On the one hand, Samuelson endorses the concept of government-sponsored programs such as public housing and food stamps as a means of reducing poverty. Friedman, on the other hand, would prefer to give the poor additional income and allow them to use the funds to solve their problems without government interference. To apply this concept, Friedman suggested the "negative income tax." The graduated income tax takes an increasing amount in taxes as one's income rises. The negative income tax would apply a sliding scale of payments to those whose income from work fell below a stated minimum.

Unit 10

Grammar: 1. .

2. .

I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

Asking the Way.

Exöcuseøme, `can you `tell me the `way to Tra`falgar ø Square?

ö Certainly. `Go `down ö Regent ø Street | into ö Piccadilly ø Circus | and `then `go `down the ö Haymarket.

Exöcuse me, ø sir, | but `would you `tell me where ø Hyde ö Park is?

I ö really have no iødea. Im ö also a ö stranger here. Youd `better ask the poölicemen over ø there. ö Hell give you `all the infor`mation you ö want.

`Would you `mind ø telling me `how I can `get best from ø here to `Hyde ö Park?

ö Oh, | thats a ø pretty `long ö way from here. Go as `far as the ø next corner | and `wait for a `bus with ø Hyde ö Park on it.

Exöcuse ø me, | `can you `tell me the `way to ø Hyde ö Park?

ö Certainly. Its about `fifteen `minutes run by `bus ö 9 from here. If you `tell the conøductor, | hell `put you ö down there.

`One ö moment, ø sir. `Can I `get to `Hyde `Park by the ø Underøground?

ö Sure. `Take the ø Underøground | from ö Mansion, House.

Exöcuse ø me, | `am I right for ø Farringdon ø Road?

No, madam. You are `going the ö wrong ø way. In ø fact, | in the opposite diörection.

No. Youll `have to `go ö back to the `bottom of `this ö road, | take the ø first `turning on your ø left (`turn to the ø left), and `walk ø straight ø on as `far as the `third ö cross-to-ads. You `cant `possibly ö miss it.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                to survive -

2.                internal funds -

3.                expenses -

4.                depreciation -

5.                replacing assets -

6.                wear out -

7.                retained earnings -

8.                external funds -

9.                to borrow -

10.           proprietorship -


Text. The Sources of Business Funds

In many ways, money is to business what water is to plants. Plants need water to begin life, to survive and to grow. Similarly, firms need money to begin operations, to meet their day-to-day expenses and to expand. Most of the money used by business comes from the sale of its products and services. Since these funds come from within the firm they are described as internal funds. The rest must come from outside, or external sources.

Internal Funds. As a firm sells its products or services, it receives money, which it uses to meet its expenses. One of these expenses, depreciation, represents the cost of replacing assets (like tools, machinery, and buildings) that wear out. Typically, businesses use internal funds to cover the cost of depreciation.

The funds that remain after paying expenses are a firm's profits or earnings. Although the owners or stockholders could take it all for themselves, in most instances some portion of the profits will be retained by the business. Since its "retained earnings," along with the sum it set aside for depreciation came from within the firm, they are known as internal funds. About 60 to 70 percent of a business firm's financing come from its internal sources.

External Funds. Sales do not remain constant from one season, or month or week to the next. There are times when more money comes in to a business than is needed to pay its bills. Similarly, at other times there is not enough money coming in to cover operating costs. When this happens, there are only four things that the firm can do:

     dip into savings,


     sell shares of stock (if it is a corporation) or seek additional capital from the owners (if it is a partnership or proprietorship),

     reduce spending.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

4. Complete as in the text and translate into Russian:

1. In many ways, money is to business what ... 2. Plants need water ... 3.Similarly, firms need money ... 4. The rest must come from outline, or ... 5. As a firm sells its products or services, it receives money which it uses ... 6. Typically, business use internal funds...7.The funds that remain after paying expenses are ... 8. About 60 or 70 percent of a business firms financing comes... 9. There are times when more money comes in to a business than ... 10. Similarly, at other times there is not enough money coming in ...

5. Sum up what the text says about:

money is to business;

the sources of coming money from;

the usage of internal funds

the four things that the firm can do


III. Grammar Exercises


1. To answer is not easy


2.   To live is to create.

We are to create


3. Science teaches you to create.


4. The work to be done isnt easy.

... ...

He was the first to answer this question.



5. To answer this question you are to know the subject well.



In order to work here you are to be an experienced specialist

, ...

6. State the forms and functions of the infinitive. Translate the following:

1. To complete a journey round the sun requires nearly 29 1/2 years. 2.Steel output is to go up in the next years. 3. To prolong this discussion is to waste time. 4. I only want to be given my chance. 5. Does this mean that to think is the same thing as to utter words? 6. This record, one may assume, is to serve some subsequent purpose. 7. To move in space calls for quite new concepts of energy. 8. He linked to be looked upon as businessman. 9. Then an incident occurred to disturb the monotony of life. 10. I have turned aside to discuss these matters.

7. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive as an attribute:

1. There is one more phenomenon to be involved into this solution. 2. The data to be analysed involve knowledge of production managements methods. 3. Daltons atomic theory was the first to make successful use of the old Greek theory of atoms in chemistry. 4. The traditional role of science is to make people healthy and the world a brighter place to live in. 5. The Sun is the first object to be studied by rocket astronomy. 6. All the attempts to confirm this suggestion have failed. 7. She gave him a list of a few books to be read. 8. I was present at an experiment - perhaps, the thousandth to have taken place.

8. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive as an adverbal modifier:

1. Laws were not made to be broken, laws were made to stay within. 2.Sometimes you retreat in order to advance. 3. The foreperson was too busy to see anyone. 4. He was so weak as to unable to work. 5. The executives found the problem too difficult to solve. 6. Its still too early to speak about the efficiency of this method. 7. In these areas the land is too unproductive to support a flourishing agricultural population. 8. The results of voting are enough to generate discussion on the pages of learned periodicals.

9. Read and translate the dialogue:

Jay Richards is consulting his financial adviser:

Jay: As a matter of fact, I'm thinking of starting an automobile agency. Could you tell me how I should finance this business?

Adv: Sure, Jay. If you've got some money of your own, you can operate on a cash basis: no credit given, no money borrowed. But a firm of this kind is usually a short lived one.

Jay: Shall I get credit from the bank then?

Adv; Not necessarily. You may just as well go to any insurance company and they will be only glad to help you, or at least they will try to show it.

Jay: Suppose I get their money to construct a building. But I'll need a lot more money to pay for the tools and equipment.

Adv: Oh, that's not a problem either. The car manufacturers will pay for it on a credit basis. And of course, you will get a loan from the bank to pay other expenses.

Jay: But that will mean a lot of money! How shall I pay it back?

Adv: Don't worry! The more money you invest the more rapid the progress you will make. You will certainly have idle money very soon. But do not let it stay idle. Invest and get profit out of it.

Jay: O.K. Thanks for the advice. I'll call in later for more details, if you don't mind.

Adv: Of course I don't. I'll be glad to see you any time of the day.

10. Form abstract nouns with the help of given suffixes:

1. noun + -age

coin, cover, pilot, parent, pack, percent,

2. noun/adjective + -dom

free, wise, king

3. noun + -hood

neighbour, child, brother, mother

4. adjective + -(i)ty

mortal, electrical, minor, major

5. verb + -al

refuse, propose, arrive, dispose

11. Chose antonyms:

payment - a). expense; b). expenditure; c). nonpayment.

agreement - a). disagreement; b). refusal; c). reduction.

employment - a). occupation; b). unemployment; c). freedom.

useful - a). helpless; b). applied; c). harmful; d). useless.

12. Read the text and retell it in Russian:


Birmingham (England), city, seat of the metropolitan county of West Midlands, central England. In 1974 the former municipal borough of Sutton Coldfield was incorporated into the city. A major industrial center, Birmingham is the second largest city in Great Britain. It is the hub of the British metal goods industry and is served by a network of railroads and highways. Among the principal metal products manufactured are motor-vehicle parts, machine tools, brassware, household utensils, sporting guns, and jewelry. Other important manufactures include electrical equipment, glass, rubber products, and chemicals. The city is located in an important coal-mining region.

Birmingham is the seat of the University of Birmingham (1900), the University of Aston in Birmingham (1895), the University of Central England in Birmingham (1992, formerly a polytechnic college), and several technical schools. Cultural facilities include the large Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery (1867), the Museum of Science and Industry, the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, and the Birmingham Repertory Theatre (1913). The city's Municipal Bank (opened 1916) is the only one of its kind in Great Britain. Birmingham churches include Saint Philip's Cathedral (1715), Saint Martin's Parish Church in the Bull Ring (13th century), and the Roman Catholic Saint Chad's Cathedral (1841). Other notable buildings are the neoclassical Town Hall (1834), the Renaissance-style Council House (1881), and the modern Bull Ring Shopping Centre.

Heavily bombed during World War II, the city has undergone extensive rebuilding. Population (1981) 1,006,908; (1991 preliminary) 934,900.

Unit 11

Grammar: 1. (The Objective Infinitive Construction).

2. (The Subjective Infinitive Construction).

I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

`How did you `get on in your ö exams?

I ö passed.

/Congratuölations! What ö `marks did you `get?

Three ø fives and a ö four.

`Well ö done. `Now you can reølax and ö enjoy your`self for a `bit.

ö Yes. Its a `big reölief.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                to engage -

2.                trade -

3.                occupation -

4.                county clerk -

5.                at will - ,

6.                power -

7.                charter -

8.                consent -

9.                to terminate - ,

10.           to dissolve - ,

11.           bankruptcy -

12.           misconduct -

13.           authority -

14.           cash -

15.           debt -

16.           to mortgage -

17.           good faith -

18.           dealings -

19.           to account - ( -)

20.           liability -

21.           to permit -


Text. Partnership

Partnership, in law, term applied to an association of two or more persons who have agreed to combine their labor, property, and skill, or some or all of them, for the purpose of engaging in lawful business and sharing profits and losses between them; in this definition the term business includes every trade, occupation, and profession. The parties forming such an association are known as partners. Partners may adopt a fictitious name or use a real family name. In the U.S., most states require the filing of a certificate of partnership with the county clerk when an assumed name is used. The agreement to form a partnership is known as a partnership contract, the most important provision of which spells out the manner in which profits are to be distributed.

A partnership can be formed only by contract; the Statute of Frauds requires the agreement to be in writing if the term exceeds one year; failure to comply results in a partnership at will. Any number of persons may contract to form a partnership, and firms of partners may enter into partnership with one another. By contrast, in most states, a corporation has no power to enter into a partnership unless such power is expressly given in the corporate charter. New members may be admitted into an existing partnership only with the consent of all the partners. The agreement of partnership generally is for a definite term of years; if no duration is specified, it is said to be a partnership at will and can be terminated at any time by any partner. By agreement of the members, a partnership may be dissolved or terminated and the terms of the partnership agreement modified at any time. Death or bankruptcy of a partner, the insanity or misconduct of a partner, and the end of the period fixed for the duration of the partnership also operate to terminate the partnership.

A partner acts as an agent of the firm in the conduct of its business. Authority to act depends not only on the express powers given to a partner by the partnership agreement, but also on the implied powers resulting from the partnership relation and the nature of the business conducted. In the case of a partnership formed to conduct a wholesale or retail business, for example, a partner has implied power to borrow money for trade purposes, to buy on cash or credit, to make contracts and negotiable instruments to hire employees, to pay firm debts and sell or mortgage property for that purpose and to receive payment of debts owed the firm. A partner must, however, exercise the highest degree of good faith in all dealings with the other partners, devote time and attention to the partnership business, and must account to the other partners for any secret profits made in the conduct of the partnership business. The liability of a partner for partnership debts is said to be unlimited, except when the partner is a limited one in a limited partnership organized in accordance with the provisions of a state statute permitting such limitation of liability.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

, ; () , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

4. Complete as in the text and translate into Russian:

1. The parties forming such an association... 2. Partners may adopt a fictitious name or use... 3. A partnership can be formed only... 4. New members may be admitted into an existing partnership only with ... 5. ... it is said to be a partnership at will and can be terminated at ... 6. A partner acts as an agent to the firm in the conduct... 7. ... for example, a partner has implied power to borrow money for trade purposes? To buy on cash or credit? To make contracts and negotiable instruments to hire employees? To pay...8. The liability of partner for partnership debts is said to be unlimited, except when partner is a limited one in a limited partnership...

5. Sum up what the text says about:

partnership as a term in law;

the formulation of a partnership;

the terms of partnership agreement; partners authority;

the liability of a partner.

6. Imagine you are a firms manager. Using the following scheme answer the questions:

1. How many departments are there at the company?

2. How many managers do work at the company?

3. What is in your opinion the most important department?

4.Are there any overseas branches?


III. Grammar Exercises

The Objective Infinitive Construction

V +

(. )



+ Inf.

1. He considers the workers (them) to do it.

, () .

2. It enabled the workers (them) to do it.

() .

1. , , .

2. .


, :



to want

to wish

to desire

to like

to love

to hate

to hear

to see

to watch

to observe

to feel

to notice -

to expect

to suppose

to consider

to assume

to believe

to hold -

to think

to know

to understand

to find

to report

to note -

) to

to order

to tell

to ask

to get

) to

to make

to let

The Subjective Infinitive Construction

N(.) +



(. )

(. )

+ Inf.

1. The workers (they) are considered to do it.

, () .

2. He appeared to be a brave man.

, , .

3. This is likely to be the truth.

, , .

1. .

3. .

7. Express the following using simple sentences with Complex Object:

Example: I see how this woman goes to the factory every day.

I see this woman go to the factory every day.

1. I saw how the director explained the details of the plan. 2. We heard how they spoke about their Institute. 3. The manager watches how the employees enter the office. 4. I heard how the workers discussed the problems they had to solve to increase the output. 5. We saw how they used the equipment we sent them last month. 6. I heard how the engineer explained the new methods of production.

8. Fill in the blanks with one of the following verbs in the form of the Infinitive:

arrive, cry, do, explain, go, get, hear, know.

1. Please stay with me, I dont want you .... 2. Davids parents didnt want him ... married. 3. She didnt understand the story, so she asked me ... it to her. 4. Talk quietly. I dont want anybody ... us. 5. Youre here early. We expected you ... later. 6. It was a very sad film. It made me .... 7. Please dont tell Tom about my plan. I dont want him .... 8. What do you think about my problem? What do you advise me ...?

9. Express the following using simple sentences with Complex Subject:

1. It is known that new economic theory is tested by practice. 2. It seems that this approach ignores the objective conditions. 3. It is said that you know the data very well. 4. It is understood that the seller will help us to choose the necessary goods. 5. It is known that the first reference to cotton has been made 2,500 years ago. 6. It is believed that the wage incentive program will be adopted in May.

10. Transform the sentences using Complex Subject and the words in brackets:

Example: He has lost weight (seem).

He seems to lose weight.

1. You know a lot of our customers (seem). 2. Our product line is getting better (appear). 3. That car has broken down (appear). 4. Our executing officer forgets things (tend). 5. They have solved the problem of variable expenses (claim). 6. The situation in this warehouse is more difficult than we thought (seem).

11. Translate into Russian:

1. With more and better goods and services available everyones living standard is likely to improve. 2. If producers expect prices to increase in the future, they may increase their production. 3. When a budget has expenses that exactly equal income, it is said to be balanced. 4. When proposed expenses are greater than expected income, the budget is said to have a deficit. 5. The proportional tax seems to be fair because everyone pays the same rate. 6. When dollar values are down, overseas sales are likely to increase. 7. Sellers in each country expect to be paid in their own currency for the goods they sell to other countries. 8. The management of the firm wants them to report about the results or their negotiations. 9. Such times of inflation and deflation are likely to create hardships for many sectors of the economy. 10. Overall employment in the industry is sure to decline as small farms are consolidated into large farms and technology further reduces the need for farm labour.

12. Give the meaning of the following words:

to employ, employee, employer, employment, unemployment, employed.

to pay, paid, payment, paying, payable, payer.

to own, own, ownership, owner.

to buy, bought, buyer.

to sell, seller, selling, sold.

to manage, management, manager, managing, manageable, managerial.

to market, market, marketing, marketability, marketable.

13. Read the text and retell it in Russian:

The United States of America

After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. A country that inspired many appelations - "Land of Opportunity," "Melting Pot," "God's Country," is still referred to us as a land of superlatives -"the richest," "the greatest," "the most."

What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economic, political and military dominance over other countries.

The United States lies in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Friendly Canada to the north and friendly Mexico to the south are the only countries bordering it.

The USA consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the North American continent of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by the Canadian territory and the rest major part of the USA. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development.

There are many big cities and towns in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest of them.

The United States of America is a parlamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant"). The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments. The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices who are appointed for life. It is supposed to decide whether a law of the Congress or an executive order of the President is constitutional or not.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The latter enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not going to be allowed to do, which was, of couse, an important democratic gain for people.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy, also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution - the "executive branch" of the government.

Unit 12

Grammar: 1. .

2. .

I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

`Can you re`duce your `prices at `least by ø 3 per `cent?

ø Well, I dont `think we ö can, the `world ø `prices have `recently `gone ö `up, you ö know. ø Besides, weve `made some ø modifi`cations and improved the ö design.

Thats ö `true, Weve ö `seen that, but wed `like you to reduce the ø `prices be`cause we are `going to `place a `very `big ö`order.

Will a `two per `cent dis`count off the `price be ø acceptable?

Thats `just what we were `going to ö ask you about.

ö Settled.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1.                money supply -

2.                advice - îâåò,

3.                lender -

4.                to rediscount -

5.                discount rate -

6.                to withdraw -

7.                currency - ,

8.                account -

9.                deposit -

10.           for collection - ( )

11.           to transfer - ,

12.           the Treasury -

13.           to issue -

14.           to redeem -

15.           securities - ,


Text. The Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System, or the Fed as it is often called, was created by an act of Congress in 1913. The Fed, the nations central bank, is made up of a Board of Governors, 12 district banks, and two committees: the Open Market Committee and the Federal Advisory Council.

Board of Governors. The Board of Governors establishes policies for the system. It consists of seven persons appointed by the President for 14-year terms.

Twelve District Banks. The Federal Reserve System is built around 12 geographic districts. District Federal Reserve banks supervise banking in each of these areas.

Open Market Committee. The Open Market Committee is made up of the seven members of the Board of Governors and presidents of five of the district banks. Its primary responsibility is to regulate the nations money supply.

Federal Advisory Council. The Federal Advisory Council does just that: it offers advice on the nations financial problems. It is comprised of 12 prominent commercial bankers, one selected from each district.

As the nations central bank, the Federal Reserve System has four separate and distinct roles that profoundly affect the economy:

Provides banking services for financial institutions;

Serves as federal governments bank;

Supervises member banks;

Manages the nations supply of money and credit.

Provides banking services for financial institutions. The Fed provides the kinds of services for banks that banks provide for public. The Federal Reserve Banks hold the reserves of the member banks, i.e. the commercial banks which are members of the Federal Reserve System. The FR Banks supply the member banks with currency if necessary and act to them as lenders by rediscounting bills. The Board determines the reserve requirements of the commercial banks. The Board too really determines discount rates. The Board discount rate corresponds in nature to the English Bank rate, though the Federal Reserve Banks do not always have the same discount rate.

Hold deposit accounts. Banks keep their reserves and other funds on deposit in a kind of checking account at their district bank.

Make loans. Financial institutions, like most businesses must borrow from time to time. When this happens they can go to the Fed for a loan.

Transfer funds. The Federal Reserve Systems wire services and computers enable local banks to transfer funds from one to the other almost instantaneously.

Banker to the Federal Government. The Federal Reserve banks function as the federal governments banker. They maintain the Treasury Departments checking account and issue and redeem government bonds and other securities.

Supervises and regulates the nations banking system. The Federal Reserve System, along with a number of other agencies, is charged with establishing the rules of behaviour for the banking system in general, and its individual institutions in particular. The purpose of these rules is to ensure the safety and soundness of the agencies that handle our funds.

Managers the supply of money and credit. One of the principal responsibilities of the Fed is to see what the nation needs. In addition to the Controller of the Currency and the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation), the Federal Reserve supervises nationally chartered and state-chartered banks and state banking agencies.

All national banks must be members of the Federal Reserve System. Incorporated state banks including commercial banks, mutual savings banks, trust companies, and industrial banks may also join the System.

Incorporated banks are those which have a charter from the state to act as an individual. Mutual savings banks are savings banks owned by their depositors. Industrial banks make loans for the purchase or manufacture of industrial products.


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

the nations central bank; Board of Governors; the Open Market Committee; the Federal Advisory Council; for 14-year terms; supervise banking; is made up of the seven members; the nations money supply; it offers advice; prominent commercial bankers; profoundly affect; to act as lenders; corresponding in nature; banks draw currency; the checks are credited to the deposits accounts; are presented for collection; from time to time; wire services; almost instantaneously; government bond and other securities; establishing the rules of behavior; in general; in particular; the safety and soundness; the amount of money and credit in circulation; nationally charted; state-charted; incorporated state banks; mutual savings banks; trust companies.

4. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the Fed? 2. When was the Fed created? 3. What is the structure of the Fed? 4. What are the main functions of the Board of Governors? 5. How many Reserve Districts are there in the U.S.A? 6. What is the primary responsibility of the Open Market Committee? 7. Does the Federal Advisory Council offer advice on the nations financial problems? 8. What are the main roles of the Fed? 9. How does the FR Banks work with the member banks? 10. What are presented to the district banks for collection? 11. What are the ways at transferring funds? 12. What does the FR Banks issue and redeem? 13. How does the Fed supervise and regulate the Nations Banking System? 14. What financial institutions may be members of the Fed?

5. Sum up what the text says about:

the structure of the Fed;

what the Fed does;

incorporated state banks;

mutual savings banks;

industrial banks;

6. Translate into Russian paying attention to other bank services:

Other Bank Services

Trusts. A trust arrangement exists when a bank provides safekeeping and management of funds for individuals, estates or institutions such as pension funds. The bank's job is to administer the money entrusted to it wisely and for the benefit of the owner. The bank receives a fee for managing these funds.

Currency Exchange Banks can buy or sell foreign currencies for their own benefit or for their clients. Importers, exporters and travelers are major users of these services. Even domestic travelers may purchase travelers' checks issued by banks.

Safekeeping. Many banks rent safety deposit boxes in their vaults to persons seeking a safe and secure place for their valuables.

Credit Cards. Some banks derive significant revenues from operating bankcard programs. There is usually an annual fee to use the credit card, and the consumer pays interest on the unpaid balance. Merchants pay a fee to the bank as well.

Brokerage. In very recent times (and still on a highly limited basis) some banks have entered the brokerage business. As brokers they buy and sell stocks and bonds for their clients.

Insurance. In a number of states certain banks can sell their customers life insurance policies.

Letters of Credit. Banks may aid commerce by writing letters of credit. In these documents, the bank guarantees one party (such as a seller) that payment will be made if certain conditions are met (such as the delivery of merchandise). Letters of credit are common when goods are bought or sold abroad. There is a fee for providing this letter of credit.

Investments. Banks are permitted to buy U.S. government bonds for their own accounts. Banks may make money in trading such bonds and from the interest paid by the government to the holders of such securities.

Underwriting. When companies (or even units of government) raise money by issuing shares of stocks or by the sale of bonds, they use the services of certain financial specialists. Some very large banks provide such assistance, as do major brokerage companies.

Consulting. A growing business for banks is to give advice to other businesses. Especially significant in recent years is the assistance provided to firms involved in corporate mergers and takeovers.


III. Grammar Exercises

Forms of the Gerund.




asking (V-ing)

being asked (being + V3)


having asked (having + V3)

having been asked (having been + V3)



1. Reading is useful


2. Our aim is mastering English


3. She likes singing


4. There are many ways of solving it


5. He went there for studying.



Prep. + Noun (..) + Gerund

Pronoun (.)

(Prep.) + N (..) + Gerund

Example: He speaks of the workers (their) doing it.

... .

7. Form gerunds using the suffix -ing:

read; explain; govern; create; develop; increase; provide; delivery; establish; distribute; visit; enter.

8. Make the following sentences simple using the Gerund:

1. Do you mind if I take your warranty card for a moment? 2. We must consider the matter thoroughly before we come to any conclusion. 3. I remember that we have seen our department head only once. 4. When he received another letter from his firm he changed his mind. 5. Before he left the office he called on his sales manager.

9. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Cleaning up the river will require a major effort, and considerable expense. 2. Scientists working together and their sharing ideas with one another is of great advantage for science. 3. Economists have two ways of looking at economics and the economy. 4. Sellers compete by trying to produce the goods and services buyers want at the lowest possible price. 5. The next step in preparing a personal budget is to draw up a list of all your sources of income. 6. There are numerous reasons people think about owning a business of their own. 7. Instead of using that temporary opportunity to increase the market share for American autos by holding prices at current levels or lowering prices, the auto companies raised their prices. 8. Monetary policy refers to regulating the supply of money as a way of stabilizing the economy. 9. Ricardo is especially famous in international economies for demonstrating the advantages of free trade. 10. Hardly a day passes without hearing a commercial or reading an ad describing the advantages of one kind of program over another. 11. A firm of under 20 employees has a 37 percent chance of surviving four years. 12. Scientists constantly exploring the unknown, their looking for new knowledge and the answers to unsolved questions cannot be overestimated.

10. Try to understand the following song paying attention to the Gerund:


On Sunday afternoons in the middle of July

I like having a rest just looking at the sky.

I like listening to the birds singing in the trees

- In July...

I like having a walk when the sun shines.

And walking in the rain.

I love thinking of you and all the things you do

- On Sunday afternoons.

On rainy April Sundays I like staying at home.

I like reading a book or simply being alone.

I like watching a film or listening to some music

- In April...

11. Read the text and retell it in Russian:

David Ricardo (1772-1823) Classical Champion of Free Trade

David Ricardo is one of history's most influential economists. Born in England, Ricardo made a fortune on the London Stock Exchange. This wealth gave him the time to write and to serve in Parliament's House of Commons. His most famous work. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), marked him as the greatest spokesman for classical economics since Adam Smith.

Ricardo is especially famous in international economics for demonstrating the advantages of free trade. Free trade is a policy in which tariffs and other barriers to trade between nations are removed. To prove his point, Ricardo developed a concept we now call the principle of comparative advantage. Comparative advantage enabled him to demonstrate that one nation might profitably import goods from another even though the importing country could produce that item for less than the exporter.

Ricardo's explanation of comparative advantage went as follows:

Portugal and England, both of whom produce wine and cloth, are considering the advantages of exchanging those products with one another.

     x barrels of wine are equal to (and therefore trade evenly for) ó yards of cloth.

     In Portugal 80 workers can produces barrels of wine in a year. It takes 120 English workers to produce that many barrels.

     Portuguese workers can produce ó yards of cloth in a year. It takes 100 English workers to produce ó yards of cloth.

We can see, Ricardo continued, that even though Portugal can produce both wine and cloth more efficiently than England, it pays them to specialize in the production of wine and import English cloth. This is so because by trading with England, Portugal can obtain as much cloth for 80 worker-years as it would take 90 worker-years to produce themselves.

England will also benefit. By specializing in cloth, it will be able to obtain wine in exchange for 100 worker- years of labor rather than 120.

As a member of Parliament, Ricardo pressed the government to abandon its traditional policy of protection. Though he did not live to achieve that goal, his efforts bore fruit in the 1840's when England became the first industrial power to adopt a policy of free trade. There followed 70 years of economic growth during which the nation became the world's wealthiest industrial power.

Unit 13

Grammar: 1. Participle I

2. .

3. .

I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

- `What do you `usually `do after work, Ann?

-Oh, a lot of things. Theres `always a `lot of `work to do about the house, washing up, doing the rooms, mending clothes.

- No, I `dont `mean that. `Whats your `favourite pastime?

- Again - `nothing very special. Sometimes I read a little, watch TV or `listen to the music.

- `Whats your fathers hobby?

- He `enjoys carpentry, just making shelves, boxes, stools and so on.

- Oh, his `hobby `seems to be both interesting and useful for the house. By the way, do you know `what are the most `common `hobbies of Englishmen?

- Well, it `isnt an easy question. As `far as I know, `many `Britishers like `sports and games, others, `gardening or `collecting `different things.

- I see. `What about dancing? Do you like it?

- Oh, very. Actually Im crazy about dancing. `Do you `mean to `say well `go to a dance?

- Yes, Id like to. Theres a very good disco at the College Club.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1. incorporate -

2. subchapter S - ,

3. income tax - ,

4. to prorate -

5. returns - ,

6. tax return -

7. to incur -

8. retained earnings account -

9.                C-corporation - (.)

10.           tax rate -

Text. Small Business in the USA: An S-Corporation is not always best

Small companies are generally believed to incorporate as S-corporations. S-corporations take their name from a Congressional addition to the income tax law known as subchapter S. The S-corporation enjoying many corporate attributes (the main is that the owners of a corporation do not expose their personal assets to corporate liability), it is treated like a partnership for purposes of determining its Federal income tax liability. At the end of each fiscal year, its total earnings (or losses) are prorated to each shareholder, and these earnings (or losses) are incorporated into their individual income tax returns.

Among the advantages of the S-corporation for small business is no "double taxation" - paying an income tax on corporate net income, and then paying an individual income tax on the dividend income subsequently distributed by the corporation.

Thus, the S-corporation "generally will not be liable for federal income tax." If losses are incurred during the start-up period (or any other period), these losses can be deducted each year from the shareholders' tax returns. All income, losses, credits, and deductions are "washed through" the S-corporation at the end of each fiscal year, and carried directly to the individual tax return for each shareholder. Being emptied out at the end of each fiscal year, the S-corporation has no retained earnings account.

For most of small businesses, the S-corporation has long been the preferred corporate structure. The operational accounting is simpler, and accounting, legal, and administrative expenses are minimized. Shareholders receive the immediate benefits of earnings without "double taxation". There are sound reasons to state that this is generally the most popular corporate structure.

However, for small businesses that are growing rapidly, the conventional C-corporation status may turn out to be more preferable. The primary motivation for such a change would be the ability to retain and reinvest earnings in the expanding business.

The maximum Federal income tax rate for C-corporation is 34 percent for taxable income up to $10.0 million, whereas the maximum tax rate on S-corporation income is now the maximum individual rate of 39.6 percent. If the business is striving to retain and reinvest all possible cash during a period of strong growth, it will obviously forgo distributing cash dividends thereby avoiding the problem of "double taxation."


II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

; ; , ; ; ( ); ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; ; .

4. Combine the words into sentences:

1. like, its, a partnership, is, Federal, it, liability, for purposes, income, of determining, tax, treated.

2. no, among, of the S-corporation, is, the advantages, double taxation, for small business.

3. washed through, all income, at the end, losses, of each fiscal year, credits, and deductions, are, the S-corporation.

4. the most popular, sound, are, to state, corporate structure, there, reasons, this, that, generally, is.

5. 34 percent, up to $10 million, income tax rate, is, the maximum, for taxable income, Federal, for C-corporation.

5. Sum up what the text says about:

the advantages of the S-corporation;

the charge to conventional C-corporation.

6. US government defines a small business as one that has fewer than 500 employees. Why do you think that most small business are in the service and retail fields?

A. Transportation/Communication - taxi service, trucking, warehousing, radio station.

B. Finance - insurance, real estate, banking.

C. Wholesale - distributor, grain elevator.

D. Other - mining, landscaping, fishing, unclassified.

E. Service - motel, barber shop, advertising agency.

F. Manufacturing - machine shop, printing, brewing.

G. Retail - gas station, shoe store, restaurant, florist.

H. Construction - general constructor, plumbing and heating, electrical.

III. Grammar Exercises

Forms and Functions of Participle I.

Active Voice

Passive Voice




1. :

(: -)

2. :

being used

1. :



2. :


Perfect Participle

having used


(-, -)

having been used


, , .

7. Define the form of Participle I:

enjoying, being emptied out, having asked, having developed, working, having been invited, being built, living, being assisted.

8. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the forms and functions of Participle I:

1.                Having done that, they let investors determine the risks for themselves.

2.                The governments of 50 states have structures closely paralleling those of the federal governments.

3.                Prices paid by consumers also include Value-Added Taxes, reflecting the costs of providing goods and services for sale.

4.                VATs are the principal means of indirect taxation in many countries, including the member states of the European Union.

5.                In most extreme form, chromic price increases become hyperinflation, causing the entire economic system to break down.

6.                Being shown this document, he said it belonged to the well-known S-corporation.

7.                Having been written the balance sheet was given to the chief executive officer.

8.                Having been completed so carefully the material didn't need any corrections.

9.                The trademark, a two- or three-dimensional insignia symbolizing a company or industry, dates from about the 16th century.

10.           The agency spends most of its time planning, creating, and producing the advertising for its clients.


The Absolute Participle Construction

Noun (..)


Pronoun (..)


, ,

Noun (..)


Pronoun (..)



- , , , .

- , , ,


1.   It being very late, we went to the hotel.

2.   This done, we had a good rest.

1.   We had two lectures yesterday, the last being on economics

2.   He sat alone, his eyes closed.


9. Translate into Russian:

1. With factories operating at less than capacity and unemployment at very high levels, total output of goods and services enters a long-term decline. 2. The contract having been signed, the delegation went away. 3. Time permitting, the manager writes this letter. 4. The article deals with the income tax, particular attention being paid to Federal income tax liability. 5. The terms of delivery having been discussed, he signed the contract.

10. Read paying attention to the different meaning of the following terms.


around (ten)

blue-chip investments call loan

checking account claim letter

collect on delivery common stock corporation law

to fix a meeting government bonds

in good shape investment bank

law business

local taxes

government in power

about (ten)

first-class investments short-term loan

current account

letter of complaint

cash on delivery ordinary share

company law

to arrange a meeting government securities

in good condition merchant bank

practice (law)


to operate a business

to run a business


operating costs

running expenses


preferred stock

preference share





right away















way back

some time ago


11. Translate English jokes:

Brother: Are you really going to marry that young man Jones? He is said to be kind and very clever. But isn't he a bit strange? At any rate he is unlike other young men.

Sister: I am going to marry Jones, and I don't find anything strange about him. And then if he is indeed unlike other young men, he is likely to make a very good husband.

12. Read the text and retell it in Russian:


Canada, a federated country in North America, made up of ten provinces and two (soon to be three) territories. Canada is a vast nation with a wide variety of geological formations, climates, and ecological systems. It has rain forest, prairie grassland, deciduous forest, tundra, and wetlands. Canada has more lakes and inland waters than any other country. It is renowned for its scenery, which attracts millions of tourists each year. On a per-capita basis, its resource endowments are the second richest in the world after Australia.

Canada is the second largest country in the world but has about the same population as the state of California, which is one-25th its size. This is because the north of Canada, with its harsh Arctic and sub-Arctic climates, is sparsely inhabited. Most Canadians live in the southern part of the country. More than three-quarters of them live in metropolitan areas, the largest of which are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa-Hull, and Edmonton. French and English are the official languages, and at one time most Canadians were of French or English descent.

Canada has impressive reserves of timber, minerals, and fresh water, and many of its industries are based on these resources. Many of its rivers have been harnessed for hydroelectric power, and it is self-sufficient in fossil fuel. Transportation equipment is the leading manufacturing industry. While Canadas prosperity is built on the resource and manufacturing industries, most Canadians work in service occupations, including transportation, trade, finance, personal services, and government.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy, and the federal, provincial, and territorial legislatures are all elected. However, Canadas sovereign is a monarch, the queen of England, who is also the monarch of Great Britain. The queen is represented in Canada by the governor-general and ten lieutenant governors. Canadas constitution guarantees equality under the law to all of its citizens. Powers of the federal and provincial governments are spelled out separately under the constitution, but over the past 50 years they have increasingly cooperated in programs that provide a wide range of social services-often called the welfare state-to the public.

Modern Canada was formed in an event that Canadians call Confederation, in 1867, when three colonies of Great Britain merged to create a partially independent state of four provinces. Since then, six more provinces and two territories have been added, with a third territory scheduled to come into existence in 1999. Canada achieved full independence in 1931 but continues to belong to the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of countries with ties to Great Britain

Unit 14

Grammar: 1. (Conditional Sentences).

2. .


I. Language Practice

1. Practise the fluent reading and correct intonation:

- Mr. Smith, `are you `here, in `London, on va`cation or on `business?

- It's a `kind of `business trip.

- Please `tell me a `few `words about your `business.

- Well, I'm in `charge of the `advertising de`partment of the `British `branch of a big multi`national corpo`ration.

- `What does your `firm pro`duce?

- Oh, a `lot of e`quipment. We pro`duce `all `sorts of `radio e`quipment, TV sets, `video ca`ssette re`corders, com`puters and so on.

- In `what `countries does this corpo`ration main`tain its plants?

- We have `branches in France, `West `Germany, `Holland, `Italy and Spain.

- `Has your `company a big `staff?

- I'm not `sure I don't know the e`xact `number. A`round `six `thousand emplo`yees in `all the `branches, I think.

2. Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

1. to encourage [in`kžri] - ,

2. taxation -

3. merits -

4. taxpayer -

5. discretionary income - ( , )

6. tax incidence -

7. tax-shifting -


Text. Taxes, Taxes, Taxes....

"But in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes."-Benjamin Franklin, 1789.

Few economic topics excite controversy more easily than taxes. While most would agree that neither government nor modern society could survive without them, taxes are more likely to be criticized than praised. But as Benjamin Franklin noted long ago they are a ' certainty, and for that reason we ought to know something about them.

Why Do Governments Collect Taxes? Although the principal purpose of taxes is to pay for the cost of government, it is not the only function taxes serve.

Sometimes taxes are levied to protect selected industries.

Taxes have also been used to discourage activities the government believes to be harmful. For example, taxes on cigarettes and liquor, so called "sin taxes," have been levied both to raise money and to discourage people from smoking and drinking.

Taxes have been used to encourage certain activities. In the 1980's, for example, the government wanted to encourage business to modernize plants and increase productivity. It did so, in part, by offering to reduce the taxes of firms that purchased new machinery and equipment.

The federal government can use its ability to tax to regulate the level of economic activity. The size of the economy is directly related to consumer and business spending. By increasing or decreasing taxes, government can directly affect the amount of money available to be spent.

Evaluating Taxes. Most people would agree that some taxation is necessary, but the question of which taxes, and in what amounts, can lead to considerable disagreement.

The benefits-received principle of taxation states that those who benefit from a government program are the ones who ought to pay for it.

The ability-to-pay principle states that taxes ought to be paid by those who can best afford them, regardless of the benefits they receive. In arguing in favor of the ability-to-pay principle, economists often cite Engel's Law. This principle states that as income increases, the proportion spent on luxuries increases, while that spent on necessities decreases. It follows that taxing higher-income groups may deny them certain luxuries, but taxing the poor reduces their ability to buy necessities.

Also, some benefits are indirect. If Mr. and Mrs. Jones have children in the public school, they can see the direct benefit of their school taxes. But Mr. and Mrs. Smith may feel they get no benefit from the school because they have no children.

We all benefit from having an educated workforce, however. Thanks to education, the nation's productivity is higher, and we can all share in the additional output that results from it. If the Smiths own a business, they benefit from having workers who have been trained to read, write and solve mathematical problems.

Most taxes can be classified as progressive, proportional or regressive. A progressive tax takes a larger percentage of a higher income and a smaller percentage of a lower income. The federal income tax is the best known example of a progressive tax.

A proportional tax takes the same percentage of all incomes, regardless of size.

A regressive tax is one that takes a higher percentage of a low income and a lower percentage of a high income. Although they are not based on a person's income, sales taxes have a regressive effect because they take a larger share of earnings from a low-income taxpayer than from a high-income taxpayer.

Which tax is the fairest? Few would argue that a regressive tax is fair. Those who favor the ability-to-pay principle would support a progressive tax, and possibly the proportional tax. There are some, however, who argue that the proportional tax is not fair.

The proportional tax seems to be fair because everyone pays the same rate. In analyzing the impact of taxes on individuals, economists often concentrate on discretionary income-the amount that a person has left after buying necessities (food, clothing, shelter, medical care, transportation, etc).

In evaluating a tax it is important to know who will really have to pay it, or, as economists put it, the incidence of the tax. The burden of paying a tax can be avoided if the one responsible for writing the check for taxes to the government can pass the cost on to someone else. The process of passing the burden to someone else is known as tax-shifting. Taxes may be passed on to consumers, in which case they are said to be shifted forward. Similarly, taxes may be shifted backward as when suppliers or the workers who produced the products are forced to assume the burden.

II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

nothing can be said to be certain; neither government nor modern society; they are a certainty; we ought to know; to pay for the cost of government; to protect selected industries; to discourage harmful activities; to encourage certain activities; the merits of one tax to another; benefits-received principle; ability-to-pay principle; educated workforce; a larger percentage; sales taxes; the burden of paying a tax.

4. Complete as in the text and translate into Russian:

1. Few economic topics excite controversy ... 2. The Federal government can use its ability to tax ... 3. By increasing or decreasing taxes, government can directly affect ... 4. The benefits-received principle of taxation states that those who benefit from a government program are the ones ... 5. The ability-to-pay principle states that taxes ought to be paid by those who can best afford them, ... 6. If Mr. And Mrs. Jones have children in the public school, they can see ...

5. Analyze the scheme and describe the circulation flow of the American Economy.

The Circular Flow of the American Economy Among Government, Consumer Households and Business Firms.

6. Think and answer the following questions:

1. What are the principal taxes you and your family pay? 2. Add the sales taxes, property taxes, value added taxes, and other together to determine what percentage of your family's income is actually spent in taxes.


III. Grammar Exercises

(Conditional Sentences)


Present Simple

Future Simple


If he comes,

If he should come,

Should he come,

Åñëè ïðèäåò,


ý he will help us.


ïîìîæåò .


Past Simple

should, wouldü

could, might ý+ V


, . .

If he came,

If he should come,

Should he come,

Åñëè ïðè,

If he were here,

Were he here,

Åñëè áû áûë ,


ý he would help us.


ïîìîã áû .


ý he would help us.


ïîìîã áû .


Past Perfect

should, wouldü

could, might ý+have+



, . .

If he had come,

Had he come,


Åñëè ïðè,


ý he would have

helped us.


ïîìîã áû .

7. Make up as many sentences as you can using the given table:

If I had a holiday

If he|I were ill

If the weather were fine today

If there were your mother's birthday today

If I were you

If they didn't have to go to the Institute

If you were tired

If she|I had free time

If you had much money

I (we) should (would)

they (she, he)

see the doctor

travel round the world

have a rest

buy a present

go for a walk

stay at home

go to the seaside


read many interesting books

8. Translate the following sentences:

1. Steven Jobs reasoned that if computers were made easier to use and less expensive, the public would buy them. 2. If you wanted to buy or sell corporate securities, you would probably call upon the services of a local brokerage firm. 3. If the corporation prospers over the years, its stocks will increase in value. 4. If the population were to grow at a faster rate than production, average living standards would fall. 5. If the public prefers to buy now and save later, less will be available for investment. 6.If a firm sought to muximize its losses, it would be unable to pay its bills. 7.If a country consumes everything that it produces, the ability of that country to produce in the future will remain unchanged. 8. If, however, something is set aside out of current production, it could be used as capital to produce more in the future.

9. Read the text and retell it in Russian:

A Balance Sheet on Russian Taxes

Taxes, in any country other than a limited number of tax haven jurisdictions, are viewed universally as a burden. Russia is no exception. OF course, a tax system that imposes a 35 percent individual tax rate and a 35 percent corporate rate (with even higher rates for certain types of businesses) will never be praised by its taxpayers. Moreover, with frequent changes and a set of tax rules different from those in the United States, Russian tax laws are viewed with great apprehension by most Americans and other foreigners doing business in Russia. Russian tax rules certainly have major drawbacks.

Other problems with Russian taxes include too many types of taxes, both on the federal and on the local level. This multitude of taxes not only makes compliance difficult, but also makes it challenging to keep current with changes and amendments. Add to the confusion presidential decrees which append taxes onto existing law or modifying existing laws, as well as the wide variety of taxes that may be enacted at the local level. Additionally, there are five different payroll taxes on top of the individual income tax that must be withheld by employers from wages paid to employees.

Russia will never be a tax haven, nor have American and other foreign businesses come to Russia with that expectation. Rather, companies doing business in Russia have come here because they feel that Russia presents certain market opportunities.

In criticizing Russia's tax rules and tax administration, we should not forget that Russia is a relatively new tax jurisdiction. Russian tax laws (as with all other laws in Russia) are in a process of evolution. The same is true of the governmental bodies enforcing the tax laws.

As a step to facilitate the obtaining of double-tax treaty relief, the Russian tax authorities have issued new dual language (English/Russian) forms. The new forms for claiming double-tax treaty relief from tax withholding can be completed in either Russian or English. This development has made it easier for foreign companies, at least from English-speaking jurisdictions, to obtain certification of taxpayer status from their home jurisdictions in order to claim treaty relief in Russia.

On May 8, 1996 President Yeltsin signed a decree making additional improvements in Russian tax rules. The decree reduces late payment penalties from 0.7 percent per day to 0.3 percent per day. Other provisions in the decree provide for more rapid periods for depreciation of capital assets (to be effective January 1, 1997) and much broader rules for the deductibility of business expenses (also to be effective January 1, 1997).

Complaints about the Russian tax system, just like complaints about the American tax system, will never go away. However, over the past year there have been many positive development in Russian tax laws and regulations. More important, at both the government and legislative levels in Russia, there appears to be growing recognition that tax rules should be changed so as not to stifle economic activity. Although the tax situation in Russia is far from ideal, there is a genuine basis for hope for improvement.

10. Read and translate paying attention to the suffixes:

-let [lit]; -sure, zure []

circle - circlet ()

book - booklet (, )

leaf - leaflet (, )

pleasure, exposure, measure, seizure.

11. Arrange in groups the words with the same prefix:

Independence, unfriendly, disbelieve, unknown, dislike, immaterial, unproductive, incomplete, unequal, illegal, impossible, irregular, untrue, inactive, irreplaceable, misunderstanding, illiterate, mispronunciation.

No Image
No Image No Image No Image

No Image
No Image