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Kompaniya Tata na Rossiyskom rynke avtomobilestroeniya v perspektive

Kompaniya Tata na Rossiyskom rynke avtomobilestroeniya v perspektive

Understanding Global Markets

Tata Motors the best to the masses

Tatas Entry Into

Russian Automobile Market



Prepared by:

Rashid Mukhamedov

Prepared for :

Eliana Senna

MAIBA January 2006

May 25th 2006

Bournemouth University
Contents :

Introduction ..2

Market opportunities for Tata in Russia4

Macro-environment ..5

Countrys pest analysis5

Political factors5

Economical factors.5

Socio-cultural factors.6

Technological factors.7

Industry factors and competitive forces7

Direct competitors and rivalry among existing companies...7

Micro-environment ...8

Swot analysis..8

Strengths and weaknesses8

Opportunities and threats..8-9

Market entry mode9

Market segments.9

Marketing mix.10

Product ...10

Price ..11

Place 11

Promotion...11

Conclusion12

References 13


Introduction

Tata the best to the Mass

 

Today Tata is Indias biggest car manufacturer with a 59% market chare .Established in 1945 Tata Motors, is one of India's largest automobile makers, has been manufacturing buses, commercial trucks and tractor-trailers, passenger cars (Indica V2, Indigo, and Indigo Marina), light commercial vehicles (TATA 407), and utility vehicles (Tata Safari EX+, Tata Sumo SE+, Tata Spacio) for sale primarily in India but also in other Asian countries and in Africa, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America. With such a large export presence, the company operates plants in Bangladesh, Kenya, Malaysia, South Africa, and Ukraine. Tata Finance, in which Tata Motors held a 12% stake, has merged with Tata Motors. Tata Motors, a Company that cares about the future. True to the tradition of the Tata Group, Tata Motors is committed in letter and spirit to Corporate Social Responsibility. It is a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact, and is engaged in community and social initiatives on labour and environment standards in compliance with the principles of the Global Compact. In accordance with this, it plays an active role in community development, serving rural communities adjacent to its manufacturing locations.

Tata Motors believes in technology for tomorrow. Its products stand testimony to this. Their annual expenditure on R&D is approximately 2% of our turnover

Today ambitious Indian vehicle makers are driving overseas to build a global presence for their brands, encouraged by robust domestic sales. Companies are setting up manufacture and assembly operations for everything from tractors to motorbikes in countries like Indonesia and South Africa, taking advantage of tax benefits and expanding markets beyond traditional destinations in South Asia .

Tata Motors Ltd., which owns 21 percent of Spanish bus maker Hispano Carrocera and this month formed a joint venture with Brazilian bus maker Marcopolo, is stepping up production at its bus building facility in South Africa and is looking to assemble pickup trucks in Thailand with a local firm.

Mahindra & Mahindra, which has a joint venture with China's Jiangling Motors for tractors, has plans to assemble pickup trucks in Malaysia through a unit of DRB-HICOM, while TVS Motor has entered a joint venture in Colombia and is setting up an assembly unit in Indonesia.

The year 2003 was extremely significant for Tata Motors, and not just because the company changed its name. The high point of an eventful 12-month period was the trailblazing debut on European roads of the City Rover, an improved version of the Indica. The year also saw Tata Motors reaching the 3-million milestone in vehicles produced. 

On July 29, 2003 the company changed its name from Tata Engineering to Tata Motors. The new name reflects the companys core business of designing, manufacturing and marketing automobiles. Less than a month later, in August 2003, Tata Motors produced its 3-millionth vehicle, reaching a landmark that exemplifies the companys ambition and progress. 

Market opportunities for Tata in Russia

The next step to exploiting new markets is sending absolutely new product of Tata Motors to Russian Federation . The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. It occupies most of eastern Europe and north Asia, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, and Lithuania in the west; Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea along the southern border.

At the start of 1992, Russia embarked on a series of dramatic economic reforms, including the freeing of prices on most goods, which led to an immediate downturn. A national referendum on confidence in first president Yeltsin and his economic program took place in April 1993. To the surprise of many, the president and his shock-therapy program won by a resounding margin. In September, Yeltsin dissolved the legislative bodies left over from the Soviet era.

With the population of 142 mln people and unexplored opportunities Russia creates very attractive market for any businesses. According to its slogan, Tata will focus on the middle class which is 60mln people with average wages 900GBPounds a month (in big cities). In our case Tata motors is going to enter this market in spite of strong competitors such as Mercedes, BMW, Toyota, Nissan and others.

Macro-environment

Pest analysis

1.Political factors

Russian Federation one of the largest countries on the map in the world consists of 21 republics, 48 regions. President is a chief of the government. The government is divided into 3 branches:1. executive 2. judicial 3. legislative

The prime minister is a head of government and Cabinet of ministers (executive branch) which is composed of 12 ministers. The legislative branch comprise Council of Federation ( consists of 178 seats) and State Duma (Russian parliament with 450 seats) . And the last one is Judicial branch which consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and Arbitral Court. The political and social environment of Russia is stable, and the government is sympathetic and have positive attitude towards business. Quite strong legal system, stringent guidelines on intellectual property, and competitive corporate tax rate shows the government's understanding of the needs of businesses.

2. Economical factors

Russia ended 2005 with its seventh straight year of growth, averaging 6.4% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble are important drivers of this economic rebound, since 2000 investment and consumer-driven demand have played a noticeably increasing role. Real fixed capital investments have averaged gains greater than 10% over the last five years, and real personal incomes have realized average increases over 12%. During this time, poverty has declined steadily and the middle class has continued to expand. Russia has also improved its international financial position since the 1998 financial crisis, with its foreign debt declining from 90% of GDP to around 31%. Strong oil export earnings have allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from only $12 billion to some $180 billion at yearend 2005. These achievements, along with a renewed government effort to advance structural reforms, have raised business and investor confidence in Russia's economic prospects. The middle classs life standards have increased recently. Russia posted gross domestic product growth of 8.3 % in 2000 and most of industrial sector posting double digit growth figures, the GDP grew about 5 % in 2001 and 4.3 % in 2002 It is expected to grow about 6.5 % in 2003. This is still higher than most of the other countries.

The Russian GDP, however, has contracted an estimated 45% since 1991, despite the country's wealth of natural resources, its well-educated population, and its diverse - although increasingly dilapidated - industrial base.

By the end of 1997, Russia had achieved some progress. Inflation had been brought under control, the ruble (national currency unit) was stabilized, and an ambitious privatization program had transferred thousands of enterprises to private ownership. Some important market-oriented laws had also been passed, including a commercial code governing business relations and the establishment of an arbitration court for resolving economic disputes.

3.Socio-cultural factors

The population of Russia is 142.8 mln people. Nearly 100% of population can read and write. Age structure of population is as follows:

0-14 age 14.2%

15-64 years 71.3%

65 and over 14.4%

The average life expectancy is 67 years .Russian is a state language. The dominating religion is Christianity with Russian ortodox 15-20% , Muslims- 15 %, other Christians 2%, the rest are non-believers.

4.Technological factors

Russia is an attractive market for both big businesses seeking to penetrate post Soviet are markets. Russia has a strong transport and communications infrastructure that is connected to all the major economies in the world through sea, air and other telecommunication services.

Industry factors and competitive forces

Direct and indirect competitors

Graph1. Market shares of car manufacturers in Russian market (2001)

As we can see from the above graph , market is dominated by German cars( BMW, Mercedes, Audi). But these cars are oriented for upper class of population, whose income is minimum $70-80000 a year. Tatas direct competitor will be Avtovaz - local domestic company which has been manufacturing mostly light passenger cars since 1970s. Its prices vary from $2900 to 6500$ which is more expensive than Tata offers . Furthermore Avtovazs cars do not meet world standards, most of their cars are still not equipped with basic componets such as ABS braking system, Power-assisted steering , Airbags and others. Considering Russian climate, especially winter Tatas X-1 models will be exclusively equipped with powerful ignition system which is resistant to low temperature up to -35*C (below zero).

Micro-environment

Swot analysis

SWOT ANALYSIS


The overall evaluation of a companys strength, weakness, opportunity and threat is called SWOT analysis.(Kotler, 2000:p76). SWOT analysis includes both internal and external analysis. In SWOT analysis, a firm evaluates its internal factors like strength and weakness in relation to the external factors like opportunities and threats.

Strengths

-          Tata holds 59% of Indian market

-          One of the biggest growing car manufacturers in more than 20 countries across the world

-          Wide range of world standard design, which may suit to any customer


Weaknesses

-          Low brand value when compared to other international well established brands

-          Newcomer in the market compare to world brands

-          Low price may give low brand image

-          Difficulties in competition with world brands

-          Less experience in former soviet zone market


Opportunities

-          Tata is one of the largest growing and well-known world car manufacturers

-          Availability and of Russian TV channels and newspapers to advertise and promote product

-          Most of the population familiar with brand

-          Access to Russian market is open

-          Stable political and social environment

Threats

-          Strong competition from well established international brands

-          Low quality may be attributed because of its origin

-          Competition from the low priced Chinese and domestic companies

Market entry mode

In the opinion of Tata s management licensing would be the most appropriate entry mode for the company . Joint venture will require large investments ,which is risky in a new market as we are not sure if new car will be adapted and accepted by the customers in new market. According to Russian law , government , trying to protect and support domestic car manufacturer from foreign competitors , adopted high import taxes . Thus export is not suitable for Tata either . Marketing department elaborated strategic plan : at the moment due to high competition Russian car plant Ij-Moskvich is on the edge of bankruptcy . Tata is negotiating to license them , to send them first 200 car components so they could assemble cars in Moskvich plant. The cars will be distributed through Moskvich dealer shops across the country. If everything goes successfully, Tata will restructure Moskvich plant and establish long-term business with them on licensing basis . It is considered that it will be cheaper to manufacture car components in India(regarding labour cost and materials ) and to send these components to Russia. Finally cars can be assembled in Russia in Moskvich plant.

Segmentation

In the Russian market, Tata will be using variables like gender, age, income and behaviour to segment the market. The targeting strategy would be differentiated global marketing where it offers its cars to five segments with multiple marketing mix offerings. The segmentation for the Tata Cars in Russian Market will be as follows.

                    Segment 1 Young people

                    Segment 2 Average income group

                    Segment 3 Mature people (Formal, and casual)

                    Segment 4 Low income

                    Segment 5 Working Women

As it was mentioned before Russian middle class with average income will consist of 62 mln people.

Marketing mix

In marketing ,one such conceptual framework that is particular useful in helping practitioners structure their about marketing problems is marketing mix. Marketing mix includes factors like product, price, place and promotion, which is commonly known as the 4Ps of marketing. A proper evaluation of the marketing mix has to be done in order to understand how the marketing mix has to be adapted to meet the target market requirements( Baker M. J,2000)

Product ,Price, Place, Promotion


1. Product

The basis of any business is product or offering( Kotler ,1999) A company aims to make the product different and better in some way that will cause tha target market to favour it and even pay price premium.

Let us return 15 years back to Russian history. After dissolution of USSR and lack of boundary, legislation control the fake and law quality products from India, China Turkey and other 3rd world countries bombarded Russian market. An important but unconventional service in Russia's economy was "shuttle trading"--the transport and sale of consumer goods by individual entrepreneurs, of whom 5 to 10 million were estimated to be active in 1996. Traders used to goods in foreign countries such as China, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates then sell them on the domestic market where demand is highest. Yevgeniy Yasin, minister of economics, estimated that in 1995 some US$11 billion worth of goods entered Russia in this way. Shuttle traders have been vital in maintaining the standard of living of Russians who cannot afford consumer goods on the conventional market . Copying international brands like Panasonic(Chinese versions :Panasoanic, Sany and Adidos), Sony Adidas and others spoilt business image of these countries .Nowadays anything that comes with labels made in China ,India or Turkey is considered as very low quality products. Therefore when entering Russian market, Tatas department of marketing and management decided to cover brand and to change the name of model .

According to Doyle, a positive or successful brand can be defined as follows :

A successful brand is a name ,symbol, design, or some combination which identifies product of particular organization as having a sustainable differential advantage(cited in Baker J,M pp 295, 2001)

2. Price

Price differs from other three marketing mix elements in that produces revenue, the other elements produce costs. Consequently companies try to increase their price as high as their level of differentiation will support. In our case we need to take into consideration that the market has been formed already, and Tata will be facing quite strong competition from international brands. However Tata cars are oriented on middle class customers with average incomes. Only 3% of Russian population can afford expensive cars such Mercedes, Bmw , Toyota and they will buy them anyway. High pricing helps to create a brand image in the market(but not in our case). The penetration pricing policy will be used because of the tough competition in the low price segment from the low priced Chinese and Russian cars.

3. Place

Every seller must decide how to make its goods available to the target market. The two choices are to sell the goods directly or to sell them through middlemen. Traditionally automobile manufacturers have sold their cars through franchised dealers. But in our case it we will license Russian company Moskvich to assemble and sell our cars in Russia.

4. Promotion

X-1 Advertising Campaign

The fourth, promotion, covers all communication tools that can deliver message to a target audience: Advertising, Sales promotion, Public relations, Sales force and direct marketing.(Kotler ,1999)

Advertising is the most potent tool for building awareness of a company, product, service or idea.

Regarding very strong competition in automobile market in Russia massive advertisement needs to be launched across the country. It will cost company approximately $40 mln. ( equal to 21.9 mln. GBPounds).

This is one of the examples which may be released on TV, Newspapers and journals This is absolutely new model of Tata which was created by Tata s professional engineers ,designers and technicians in 2006. The new Indica V2 Xeta. In our case this car will be renamed to Euro X-1.Its eXtra Efficiency Torque Advantage petrol engine delivers 12.4 kgm torque, for a smoother and more responsive drive. With instant pick up and fewer gear changes in stop-start city traffic.

The technologically superior MPFI engine comes with a 32-bit microprocessor, and sports 12 sensors, including a knock control sensor to reduce damage from adulterated fuel. The result? Even more enjoyable long drives, with a frugal fuel consumption at 14 kmpl.

Its spacious cabin - the biggest in its class, seats three people comfortably in the rear, with ample elbow room and generous leg room. The luxurious beige interiors come as a standard feature. Just a car to suit you. Only $2200 Car finance is available. First 15 customers will get 5% discount


Conclusion

While considering macro level situation in Russia, the future of the Tatas cars in Russian market is bright. Using licensins as its entry strategy, the investment in this aspect would be much lower compared to other entry modes. But massive expenses need to be incurred on advertising and boosting the brand in a dynamic market like Russia, which is the playground of huge international companies. Titan is likely to have initial problems while entering in Russian market because of the presence of international well established firms. But large population and the demand for cheap reliable Indian cars provides a strong base for Tata in the market. After considering the various factors, it is clear that an invest in Russia, provides a huge perspective and successful entry in this market and will open the doors for entry into the other Post Soviet Republics as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan , Tajikistan and others.
References

1. Brassington, F. Pettitt S., 1997 .Principles of marketing . . - London : Pitman


2. Baker, Michael J., 2000- Marketing strategy and management . - 3rd ed. . Basingstoke : Macmillan Business


3. Barrell - Exploring and exploiting new markets for profitable business growth . - Cambridge

4. Kotler, Ph .1999, How to create, win, and dominate markets . - London : Simon & Schuster

5. Lancaster, G. A. 2001.- Marketing management . - 3rd ed. . - London : McGraw-Hill


Electronic sources:

1. www.autoworld.agava.ru

(accessed May 20, 2006)

2. #"#">www.avtovaz.ru

(accessed May 19, 2006)

Appendices

Government

   Russia

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Country name:


conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Government type:


federation

Capital:


Moscow

Administrative divisions:


48 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 9 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 7 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
autonomous okrugs: Aga Buryat (Aginskoye), Chukotka (Anadyr'), Evenk (Tura), Khanty-Mansi, Koryak (Palana), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Taymyr [Dolgano-Nenets] (Dudinka), Ust'-Orda Buryat (Ust'-Ordynskiy), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
krays: Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Permskiy, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol'
federal cities: Moscow (Moskva), Saint Petersburg (Sankt-Peterburg)
autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence:


24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:


Russia Day, 12 June (1990)

Constitution:


adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system:


based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:


chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president 31 December 1999-6 May 2000, president since 7 May 2000)
head of government: Premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV (since 5 March 2004); First Deputy Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 14 November 2005), Deputy Premiers Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 March 2004) and Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 14 November 2005)
cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president
note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 14 March 2004 (next to be held March 2008); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 71.2%, Nikolay KHARITONOV 13.7%, other (no candidate above 5%) 15.1%

Legislative branch:


bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 88 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; currently elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: State Duma - last held 7 December 2003 (next to be held in December 2007)
election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats - United Russia 37.1%, CPRF 12.7%, LDPR 11.6%, Motherland 9.1%; seats by party - United Russia 222, CPRF 53, LDPR 38, Motherland 37, People's Party 19, Yabloko 4, SPS 2, other 7, independents 65, repeat election required 3

Judicial branch:


Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president

Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity):


$1.539 trillion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):


$740.7 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:


5.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):


$10,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:


agriculture: 5%
industry: 35%
services: 60% (2005 est.)

Labor force:


74.22 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:


agriculture: 10.3%
industry: 21.4%
services: 68.3% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:


7.6% plus considerable underemployment (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:


17.8% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:


lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 38.7% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:


40 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):


11% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):


17.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:


revenues: $176.7 billion
expenditures: $125.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)

Public debt:


15.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:


grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

Industries:


complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:


4% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:


931 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - consumption:


811.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:


24 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:


14 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:


9.15 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:


2.8 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:


5.15 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:


75,000 bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:


69 billion bbl (2003 est.)

Natural gas - production:


587 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:


402.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:


157.2 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:


12 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:


47.57 trillion cu m (2003)

Current account balance:


$89.31 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:


$245 billion (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:


petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Exports - partners:


Netherlands 9.1%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 6.4%, Italy 6.2%, China 6%, US 5%, Switzerland 4.7%, Turkey 4.3% (2004)

Imports:


$125 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:


machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products

Imports - partners:


Germany 15.3%, Ukraine 8.8%, China 6.9%, Japan 5.7%, Kazakhstan 5%, US 4.6%, Italy 4.6%, France 4.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:


$181.3 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:


$230.3 billion (30 June 2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:


in FY01 from US, $979 million (including $750 million in non-proliferation subsidies); in 2001 from EU, $200 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):


Russian ruble (RUR)

Exchange rates:


Russian rubles per US dollar - 28.284 (2005), 28.814 (2004), 30.692 (2003), 31.349 (2002), 29.169 (2001)

Fiscal year:


calendar year


  

Communications

   Russia

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Telephones - main lines in use:


39.616 million (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:


74.42 million (2004)










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